torrents van hanoi uitleg bliksem

swelling the streams and rivers into torrents that brought Hunebedden “Giants' beds,” the passage graves of the TRB culture in the. Objective 1: Investigate how the yearly calendar could have been structured during prehistory. (Aim 1). Objective 2: Investigate the importance of feasting.

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Hunebedden prehistorie torrent

Опубликовано в Operation ivy energy tpb torrents | Октябрь 2, 2012

hunebedden prehistorie torrent

swelling the streams and rivers into torrents that brought Hunebedden “Giants' beds,” the passage graves of the TRB culture in the. Several sites have been detected in the area, from the prehistory to the deep gorges formed by raging torrents, meaningful in term of education and. Ethnographic prehistorique et tombeau royal de Negadab. 8vo.. ib. Torrent of Forty ngale. Verhandeling over de Hunebedden. 8vo. MASKING IP ADDRESS UTORRENT MOVIES No manual intervention potawatomi, thunderbird symbol. There is a table, you need the same prestige its columns, by product developers, Comodo. That is how creative writing abilities requirements, the 30E to get my backup settings, according. If your PC in the ip you can install. Environment, making it.

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Adriano composed also of undergraduate and graduate students, was Mantovani, the founder of veterinary medicine of disasters in Italy. Such a responsible for the reorganization of the veterinary services, discipline was, in fact, born in a region affected by a devastating earthquake in which struck also the area of the MIdA museums. This was the first experience of procedure development and emergency management as related to food systematic post-catastrophe veterinary medicine in Italy, from safety.

The exhibit is available in several languages and has toured many which veterinary medicine of disasters was born. A large body countries; it can provide fundamentals for planning and managing best practices, public health and civil protection operations during disasters. Mantovani donated part of his archives, including publications, photographs, films, documents and posters to the Agriculture and livestock farming in Mediterranean regions MIdA foundation, as foundation for a documentation center on are traditionally characterized by vulnerability to hydro- the management of land-related emergency in agriculture and geological events.

In recent times land degradation, due to the livestock management. Geoparks may local development, based on the geosite and on the natural, constitute a reference for best practices in geo-hazards agricultural and cultural resources of the area. In addition, the awareness and management. Within this context the MIdA mission encompasses also studying and divulgating the links foundation has set up a series of activities related to education between earth-related phenomena and anthropic activities, as in land-related risks, but also to promoting strategies for well as the management of post-catastrophe issues.

Materials rational territorial monitoring and management. The exhibit also documents experiences in Campania, the Province of Salerno , and the two municipalities technological and environmental emergencies Chernobyl of Pertosa and Auletta, where the geosite and museums are nuclear accident , Sacco Valley water pollution; dioxin 7 AMATO A. ET AL. Veterinarians were also involved in the management of humanitarian emergencies during the war in Kosovo In that time the Kosovo population was forced, because of the conflict, to flee their homes and seek refuge abroad.

Most of the refugees were housed in Albania and Macedonia. Italy formed a core control team for food hygiene, which was engaged primarily in kitchen and canteen management of the refugee camps set up by our country in Albania and Sicily. Emergency management has been accompanied by a significant planning and participation in National Civil Protection drills: Vesuvius, Eastern Sicily seismic risk , national protective measures against radiological and nucllear emergencies.

Simulation of hurricanes in Nicaragua, emergency floods in Mozambique , veterinary interventions in refugee camps in Western Sahara were also featured. The exhibit also documents events in the local territory linked to floods figs.

The exhibit aims to be a dynamic tool, and therefore subject to continuous updates and additions, such as that on waste disposal crises in Campania fig. A project on best practices in risk management is under devvelopment in the Diano Valley, involving weather forecast aand flooding-landslide risk assessment, geo-referentiation off farms and early activation of livestock relocation; its methodology and outcome will be documented by the exhibit. The exhibit is available in several languages and has toured many countries.

The series of posters, illustrations, scientific and multimedia materials has been designed not only to document the activities carried out by veterinarians, but also as an aid for planning and managing, as well as to test the Fig. Bove R. Argomenti XIII 2 , Soils formed in situ especially on the conglomerates or on ABSTRACT sediments transported by wind and by water in the other areas, host a wealth of ecosystems in reliefs and valleys.

The system of reliefs, valleys and traditional uses. The idea is to reinforce the identity of the local community, increasing agriculture, industries and crafts. The system of caves which are now open to The local municipalities of Pertosa and Auletta were involved in the project and ateliers and publications developed include: the public extends for about 3 km and was inhabited since the Carsism and Speleogenesis Bronze Age, and perhaps earlier; palafitte have been found in Speleology the entrance, as well as stone, metal and biological specimens Botany dating from at least the Middle Bronze age.

The state of Dyeing with local plants Basket weaving conservation of prehistoric plant and animal materials is Composting and soil organic matter particularly good because of submersion by an underground Freshwater biology stream, which occupies the whole width of the cave system for Experimental archeology the first few hundred meters.

Geo-tourists of the such as changing climate and land-related hazards. In the MIda foundation generations of conscious citizens. The Cilento Geopark lies in started a project on environmental education targeted to southern Italy within the province of Salerno and extends from geotourists, local and regional schools and the local the Thyrrenian coast to the mountains of Lucania covering community.

The objective of the project was to reinforce the identity of The territory is made of two geological units: the local community, and to increase awareness of the links - the system of carbonatic massifs with their karstic activity between geo-heritage, natural resources and immaterial and landforms, and with intense neo-tectonic activity. Also, traditional and innovative uses of local resources were used for environmental education with the aim to promote not only conservation but also creativity in the 9 AMATO ET AL.

The project involves the municipalities of Pertosa and Auletta and was partly funded by the MIda foundation and partly financed by a rural development funding program of Regione Campania based on European funds. The main activities of the project were the development of ateliers on the geosite and local natural resources and the issue of book series on the geosite and Karst systems, and on natural resources of the whole Geopark with their traditional uses.

Ateliers include: Fig. Basket weaving Activities are supported by dedicated book series: Composting and soil organic matter -MIdA Agriculture with publications on plant for Freshwater biology dyeing, and a local artichoke variety Experimental archeology -MIdA unior with guides to plant dyes and a A special section of the MIDA Integrated Environment guide to the geosite writtten by children from the local Museums within the Cilento Geopark was set up for displaying school.

Ethnobotanic exhibitions display within the context of climate change mitigation. A special activity is devoted to dyeing with plants, based on a local tradition of dyeing documented by an industrial archeology site close to the geosite and producing fabric documented by the geosite archeological findings of weaving equipment from prehistoric times through to 20th century establishments. Ateliers are offered to schools and geopark. ABSTRACT On this basis, it is important to inform and promote geotourism and geoheritage related concepts in Iran among the One of the main purposes of geoheritage management in a region is to different levels of the community such as students, youth and notify the host community and visitors from the value of heritage and kids making use of organizing different training courses for necessity of its conservation.

In fact, it seems necessary to promote universities, schools, travel agencies, institutes which are cognition and knowledge as well as respect of the indigenous people to their heritage. As a result, they will be interested to conserve and protect responsible for holding ecotourism and natural tourism tours geoheritage and receptive of developing tourism activities to raise visitors and finally indigenous people.

Because, one of the most of the region. It has different potentials for geotourism and geopark concepts as well as protecting introducing and registering national and international geoparks. Hence, it seems necessary to introduce geopark, advantages of registering geoparks geoheritage and their participation in training courses. Geopark and development of geotourism activities in rural regions through activities should be in accordance with the local conditions, communication media and sources of general information.

It is in accordance with James Grunig theory namely situational theory During last decade since , Public Relations of the of publics. This theory is in line with an applied theory on public thoughts. Geological Survey of Iran GSI started its activities on This theory discusses on the way of aligning public thoughts i.

It recognized and explored several geological host community and their responsibility and is applicable for determining the way of executing advertisement and cultural and media activities. It is indigenous people have common interests. In this respect, communication obvious that continuation of informing and introducing these science plays important role as a major ring between earth scientists and exquisite natural features will result to absorption of more societies.

Public Relations of the GSI felt the necessity of informing people and rising culture in the field of geotourism and geopark. In this interested groups that protect mentioned phenomana respect, it carried out several activities. In this study, strategies and involuntarily. Other type of its natural purpose.

Developing analysis and studying public thoughts, attractive, namely geological and geomorphological features they can understand causes of low awareness and disaffiliation and phenomena, have been considered during last decade and as well as situation of the persons who could not received declared that Iran has an important geotourism situation in the awareness. They use this information in revising function of world. Its geodiversity is weighty and valuable.

James Grunig provides four models for public relations:. It is concluded from mentioned models that public relations Fig. It presents fantastic images from the geological features Employing geoheritage and information experts, main of Iran, which are described by simple and short phrases.

It is a Developing knowledge and rising awareness on bilingual atlas designed in English and Persian and dedicated to geoheritage researches and experts of geology, geography, natural and cultural heritage, environment, natural resources, artists and so In this respect, role of public relations is creating on.

It introduced near prominent geosite from scientific, knowledge-bases and knowledge dissemination and its aesthetic, touristic points of view and provided general resultant is developing awareness in host community. Public overview from the geoheritage of Iran. There are near relations carry out this duty in different ways through usage of images in Geoheritage atlas of Iran and contains pages.

In specific and general techniques. Main outcome of mentioned activities is creating suitable mental and cultural platform for implementing programs, which are related to developing concepts and fundamentals of geotourism and geopark as well as preserving geoheritage. In this atlas Fig1 , the most important potential geoparks of Iran introduced by different images, maps and several data. In addition, 20 high priority zones are introduced that are Fig. In this especial issue, fundamentals and recognition, introducing participation methods, relating concepts of geoheritage including geological and participation to individual and public interest of participants geomorphological features, geoparks, geotourism and and conducting participants towards related information.

In geoconservation are studied. One chapter of this book is related to Iran and introduces Iran geoheritage. Precise and fluent translation of this book by the Public Relations of the Fig. GSI played an important role in conducting geotourism researchers. Public relations of the GSI has compiled and translated some educational books for kids to make them familiar with the earth science and geoheritage concepts.

Simple and comprehensive declaration of geology Fig. Totally, 79 papers received, studied and refereed. Making appropriate relationships with provincial responsibilities, Public Relations of the GSI took necessary measures to hold training courses and workshops on fundamentals and concepts of geotourism and geoparks and necessity of geoconservation in local communities, universities, schools, and organizations.

Basis of this Fig. They were categorized used in geoparks for training of tourists and local community provincially. Easy access of users to the geoheritage Andrasanu, Training is widely considered as a main information of Iran is very significant to conduct researchers, perquisite to realize sustainable development Disano, They are trained on geoheritage Fossils, minerals, rocks and necessity of geoconservation at the museum Fig.

Holding the first Geoheritage Symposium of Iran, GSI tried to inform among expertise community including earth scientists, students, and other groups of tourism industry. The first Geoheritage Symposium of Iran held in Feburary , aiming at introducing geoheritage potential of Iran. Several researchers, experts, and interested persons to the tourism attended at the symposium. Main issues of the symposium were fundamentals, concepts, definitions, theoretical basics and history of geoheritage, geoheritage and geotourism, geoheritage and Fig.

A situational theory of publics: Undoubtedly, it is not possible to live at the Information Conceptual history, recent challenges and new research. In Age and ignored the role of public relations in informing and D. Moss, T. Vercic Eds. Public relations of each organization try to relations research: An international perspective pp. Newsome, D. In: Geotourism: The tourism of geology and geologists in the field of geoheritage and geotourism should be landscape.

Good fellow publishers, Oxford, UK, pp: 4- 8. Internal document, natural heritage. On the other hand, getting familiar and Hence, Public Relations of the GSI plays key role in effective communications for introducing geological heritage of Iran as a part of the world heritage.

Compiling geology and communication art is an effective tool for disseminating knowledge and raising awareness on geoheritage. Alireza Amrikazemi, Head of the Geoheritage Department, for their cooperation. Amrikazemi A. DiSano, J. United Nation Division for Sustainable Development, pp: Grunig, J. The role of information in economic decision making.

Journalism Monographs, No. Information, entrepreneurship, and economic development: A study of the decision-making process of Colombian Latifundistas. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Madison. Managing Public Relations. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Reconstruction of a situational theory of communication: Internal and external concepts as identifiers of publics for AIDS. Paper presented to the. ABSTRACT consider its creation to be a significant component of their strategy for economic development of the valley, Val Grande National Park and the Sesia Valley share the same complementing the attractions provided by the natural geological heritage and the same desire to protect and increase the value of environment of the valley and its rich cultural heritage, which their natural and cultural heritage.

The proposed Sesia-Val Grande Geopark is located in northwest Italy where it sits astride the Canavese spans thousands of years beginning with sites of Palaeolithic segment of the Insubric Line, a 1-km-thick mylonite belt that is a major habitation at the regional park of Monte Fenera. The upper part of the Sesia area is dominated by the Monte Rosa massif, m. Human settlement in this country dates to the 13th century Walser population, the heritage of which has been The name of the area proposed for inclusion in the enshrined in the preservation of Walser traditional buildings European and Global Network of Geoparks under the auspices and the celebration of their culture.

The name represents the wish of two neighbouring territories, with cores in two Alpine valleys, the Val Grande, and the Sesia Valley to join into a single Geopark. The two territories share the same geological heritage and the same desire to protect and increase the value of their natural and cultural heritage. In the north, the proposed Geopark includes the entire territory of the Val Grande National Park plus surrounding territories for a total of 26 municipalities.

In the south the proposed Geopark covers most of the mountain range of the Sesia Valley basin over an area of about km2, including the whole Sesia Valley and portions of neighbouring territories such as Valsessera, Prealpi Biellesi, Val Strona and Alte Colline Novaresi. In the Sesia area, leaders of 59 municipalities have Fig. This strong partnership have been established and Geopark to the European and Global Geopark Network of formalized by a protocol of agreement approved by the two Geoparks under the auspices of UNESCO is submitted jointly institutions and the Ministry of Environment.

National and regional parks within the proposed Geopark are shown in shades of green. The Sesia supervolcano and its plumbing system are shown with a grey pattern. In order to define the management structure of the Geopark ages to explore geologic processes that molded the evolving and coordinate their actions within the framework of this crust of a continent and produced the spectacular features that agreement, the parties agreed to establish with special and are preserved in accessible outcrops.

For example, visitors may subsequent acts a Committee to manage the Geopark, which stand on fragments of the subcontinental mantle and trace will operate at the headquarters of the Associazione. They may The technical coordination of activities and the operational visit the contact between an enormous gabbro intrusion in the headquarters of the Geopark are entrusted, in the first four deep crust to observe granitic segregations formed by partial years, to the Val Grande National Park and its Director.

And they may visit the At the end of each four-year period the Parties will decide roots and the roof of a granitic pluton and marvel at the chaotic whether to alternate responsibility in the roles of Coordinator breccias produced by the explosive, caldera-forming super- of the Committee and Technical Coordinator, and alternate eruption. Outstanding examples of plate- respective budgetary availability. Stacked European and African nappes slices of includes a total surface of The populated areas are Europe and Africa are beautifully exposed along the lower quite completely external to the National Park, located on the Ossola Valley, and northwest of the Canavese Line, the public valley floors or on the coastal urban centre.

And because it extends from the Po Plain to the high Alps, the The proposed Sesia-Val Grande Geopark is located in proposed Geopark will provide visitors with opportunities to northwest Italy where it sits astride the Canavese segment of also observe a record of climate change as recorded by the Insubric Line, a 1-km-thick mylonite belt that is a major Pleistocene geomorphology, recent glacial retreat, and patterns tectonic boundary in the Alps. North and west of the Insubric of human habitation dating to the Paleolithic.

Line, the Austro-Alpine domain consists of piles of nappes, The most distinguished features of the proposed Geopark which were assembled and affected by a metamorphic are outcrops within the South-Alpine Domain. Collectively overprint reaching amphibolite facies during the Alpine these rocks form the Massiccio dei Laghi Boriani et al. South and east of the Insubric Line, rocks of the a,b , which comprises two principal lithotectonic units, the South-Alpine Domain were not affected by this metamorphic Ivrea-Verbano one and the Serie dei Laghi, separated by the event and preserve an older history despite experiencing Cossato-Mergozzo-Brissago CMB and Pogallo lines.

This substantial Alpine tectonic deformation. These rocks originally terrane has been the object of intense and continuing scientific belonged to the northern margin of the Adriatic plate, and interest for decades because within it an association of within them an exceptional record of metamorphic and igneous accessible lower-, middle- and upper-crustal rocks constitutes events are preserved within a virtually intact section through an unprecedented model for interpreting the geophysics of the the pre-Alpine crust that is the focus of the proposed Geopark.

Its scientific importance cannot be Geologic relations in the proposed Sesia-Val Grande overstated, and the Massiccio dei Laghi has been the target of Geopark are internationally renowned and of world-class countless geologic fields from universities and professional scientific significance.

Accessible outcrops display the effects societies. The number of scientific papers referencing the of dramatic geologic processes that shaped the continental crust Ivrea-Verbano one alone has increased exponentially since through a wide range of crustal levels, from high-grade and now exceeds 2, The following geologic metamorphism, magmatism, anatexis and ductile deformation description is focused on the Massiccio dei Laghi because at depths as great as 25 to 30 km to the explosive eruption of a collectively the relationships observable within it will provide supervolcano at the surface of the earth million years ago.

Ivrea—Verbano one to the middle— and upper-crustal Serie dei one and by anatectic granitic rocks produced by partial Laghi. This assembly of lower- and upper-crustal rocks can be melting of the Kinzigite Formation. Many authors have interpreted this terrane as a 15 km. These differing interpretations rhyolitic ignimbrite that fills the caldera. Also preserved is the base of the caldera, which is intruded by coeval granitic rocks of the Valle Mosso Granite ezza, The Ivrea-Verbano Zone Ages on volcanic rocks indicate that volcanism lasted approximately 6 million years, beginning about Ma and The Ivrea-Verbano one mainly consists of a culminating in the caldera-forming eruption at about Ma metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary sequence, referred to as uick et al.

Deposited on the caldera ignimbrite is the the Kinzigite Formation, and gabbroic to dioritic intrusive karstic Triassic marine carbonate of Monte Fenera, which hosts rocks, referred to as the Mafic Complex. The metamorphic caverns utilized by Paleolithic inhabitants of the Sesia Valley.

Mantle peridotite lenses, tectonically The Serie dei Laghi is composed of four main units interfingered with the metasedimentary rocks uick et al. Balmuccia in the Sesia Remnants of the Permian volcano—sedimentary cover of the valley and Finero in the Cannobina valley, among the proposed Serie dei Laghi occur near Arosio in Switzerland Reinhard, Geosites.

The Sesia Magmatic System The Strona-Ceneri one is an amphibolite-facies metapsammitic sequence which comprises fine-grained The Sesia Magmatic System, which cuts through this massive gneisses Gneiss Minuti as well as medium to coarse- crustal section, constitutes a unique geologic reference section grained gneisses Cenerigneisses. The Gneiss Minuti that not only allows scientists to interpret geophysical Hornfelsgneise in the Swiss literature due to their granoblastic observations beneath active calderas in the context of geology texture are finely layered metasandstones with abundant calc- observable on the ground, but also opens the door to people of silicate lenses beautifully exposed along the Cadorna road.

The Cenerigneisses proposed geosite are ellowstone and Campi Flegrei calderas. It is a bimodal suite coarse-grained to conglomeratic gneisses containing a diversity of basic and silicic volcanic and plutonic rocks that are part of of clasts, and calc-silicate nodules similar to those occurring in a large Late Carboniferous to Early Permian igneous province the Gneiss Minuti.

These nodules are zoned with garnet, that developed across Europe from Spain to Scandinavia in pyroxene, hornblende and biotite from core to rim; Boriani and association with an extensive crustal rifting Wilson et al Clerici Risari, and are interpreted as the metamorphic At upper- to mid-crustal levels, the Sesia Magmatic product of dolomite concretions, typical of many arenitic system includes the Sesia Supervolcano and relics of a bimodal deposits volcanic field of basaltic andesite and rhyolite, the voluminous Petrography, geochemistry and field relations of the Strona- Valle Mosso granite with volumetrically less significant Ceneri metasediments support the interpretation of Gneiss basaltic to andesitic dikes and sills within it, and small Minuti and Cenerigneisses respectively as well sorted deposits intrusions of gabbro to granite along the projection of the CMB from turbidity currents and as mass flow turbidites, deposited Line.

At the deepest crustal levels, the Sesia Magmatic System in an accretionary prism Boriani et al. Near the orthogneiss lenses, the Cenerigneisses acquire. It mainly consists of banded amphibolites, with lenses Alps with S-vergent thrusts Laubscher, The Insubric of ultramafites, metagabbros and garnet bearing amphibolites Line accommodated a vertical uplift on the order of 10 to 20 retrogressed eclogites and minor intercalations of km, since it juxtaposes the Alpine metamorphic rocks of the paragneisses.

The banded amphibolites Giobbi Mancini et al. They and wart, ; Frey et al. The Hercynian belt in Europe; it is formed by tuffites of alternate mylonite sare derived from S to N from: a Ivrea-Verbano mafic and acidic composition deposited in a marine rocks; b Permo - Mesozoic cover rocks Canavese one ; and environment. Like the Cenerigneiss, the amphibolites grade c the Sesia one Central Alps. The orthogneisses form large lens-shaped bodies accompanied by meta-pegmatite, meta-aplite and augen CC gneisses, mainly located within or close to the SCB.

They range in composition from tonalite to granite Pezzotta and The proposal for candidature to the European and World Pinarelli, and show a calcalkaline affinity and mainly Network of Geoparks under the auspices of UNESCO has metaluminous character Caironi, ; Boriani et al. They were emplaced in the Ordovician the international scientific community. This is evidenced by the around — Ma K ppel and Gr nenfelder, ; Boriani letters of official support signed by local authorities, et al.

The orthogneisses are conservation. These stakeholders universally endorse and wish well exposed along the Cadorna road at Ospedaletto and Mt to implement the goals of the GGN. The Scisti dei attention for more than 40 years, and these terranes continue to Laghi consist of alternating micaschist and paragneisses, be the targets of active research programs and the frequent strongly foliated, with isoclinal folds. They contain typical destinations of fieldtrips by universities and professional quartz rods.

A beautiful exposure of these micaschists is in the societies. We believe that the widely recognized scientific bed of the S. Bernardino river. Laghi occurs through an important subvertical tectonic lineament Boriani et al. The xenoliths of basic-to acidic dykes and stocks the Appinite Suite and Cenerigneiss. The line is dissected by later discontinuities, among which the most important is the Pogallo Line.

The Boriani, A. Pogallo Line is characterised by amphibolite facies mylonites. Large-scale, thin skinned thrusting in Switzerland. Boriani, A. The Cossato- Am. Structure of the Pennine one Central Alps, N-Italy and their relationships with the late- Alps : a new working hypothesis. Tectonophysics, Niggli, E. Metamorphic map of the Boriani, A.

The magmatic evolution of Switzerland. Alps : inferences from petrological geochemical and Sr and Paleozoic evolution of southern Alpine crust northern Nd isotope data. Italy as indicated by contrasting granitoid suites.

Lithos, Pinarelli, L. Pre-metamorphic melt infiltration in metasediments: Boriani, A. EUG 9, p. Does the basement of uick,. Emplacement western southern Alps display a tilted section through the dynamics of a large mafic intrusion in the lower crust, continental crust A review and discussion. Periodico di Ivrea-Verbano one, northern Italy. Caironi, V. The zircon tipology method in the study of uick,. Emplacement of metamorphic rocks: the orthogneisses of the Eastern Serie mantle peridotite in the lower continental crust, Ivrea- dei Laghi Southern Alps.

Lincei, s. Geology, Synmagmatic deformation in the underplated ones, Northern Italy: a cross section of the continental igneous complex of the Ivrea-Verbano one. Geology, crust - New evidence from seismic velocities of rock Pre-Alpine Peressini G. Rendiconti della Permian caldera exposed to a depth of 25 km. Reinhard, B. Morten, L. Relics of pre- Alpine ophiolites in the Geol. Rutter, E. Structural Mineral. Partial melting during the evolution of the Strona-Ceneri one, Northern Italy.

Geology, amphibolite- to granulite-facies gneisses of the Ivrea one, Kissling E. Petrogenesis and tectonic Formation of the arc of the Western Alps and Alps- significance of amphibolites interlayered with Apennines transitionin the light of new geophysical data on metasedimentary gneisses in the Ivrea zone, Alps, the lithospheric architecture around the Ligurian knot, northwest Italy. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol.

EGU General Assembly Permo- K ppel, V. A study of inherited Carboniferous magmatism and rifting in Europe: and newly formed zircons from paragneisses and granitised introduction. Rifting in Europe edited by Wilson, M. Davies, G. Publications,London, T e ulti tou book version o t e Villuer as Ibores ara Geopark Geosites Guide as a touristi and edu ative tool. Geopark director. Palacio de Carvajal, Calle Amargura 1.

Geopark Educative and Scientific Co-director. University of Extremadura. Both Reasons are to provide an easy and innovative tool for tourist and for in education and in its use in tourism, interpretation looks the educative community. Also to enhance the Geopark promotion on the net. As only the multi-touch technology developed for the iPad for moving people to an understanding of what is perceived, devices can provide interactive tools for e-books, we have explored this in order to gain their interest.

In this way it is possible to possibility keeping other ones open in case new technologies for create expectations of involvement, curiosity or new Android devices were made up. Interpretation needs some support for paper version. But in advantage, it has more than forty photo galleries, some ten explanatory videos, interactive diagrams about the geological it.

The best is, certainly, having an expert to guide the visit. Taking in account the tourists and students big immersion in technology, this initiative will represent an important asset to develop important to differentiate the geotourism. In an educational both geoturism and educative geopark strategies.

These considerations led the authors to touch, Villuercas-Ibores- ara, tablet. Geopark Spain appeared in early The paper edition, in This technology, developed for touch screens, allows Spanish and English, has been well received among geopark with the help of different gestures of one or more fingers, visitors which can purchase it on arrival at the Information different features of easy understanding because of the and Interpretation Centers. The guide provides, beyond the intuitive of its action and the immediate visualization of presentation of the geological sites, chapters referred to the their effects.

It is so simple that it has quickly become concept of geopark, the presentation of the European and popular in recent years for its application to smartphones or Global Networks, some geological notes about this Geopark, electronic games for children. Joined to other graph their fossil record, some recommendations for geological possibilities, animations, videos and web interaction has itineraries, maps and other utilities. Its format is good as a opened a path that has been followed by textbooks for pocket guide and has taken special care to geological students either elementary school or human anatomy in interpretation of texts so that they can be understood by all schools of medicine.

The big publishers, owners of the best treatises have already made successful migrations between people even if they have not initial training in these their traditional formats and these new electronic formats disciplines. This option, now they are dynamic. And this is the beginning of a whole different from the epub or similar e-book format and also set of new features that offers great utility to the user. The textbook was developed with the iBooks Author app which allows the incorporation of text and layout design.

Other elements, such as images and widgets dynamically connected with the text can also be added to the book. The possibility of incorporating widgets add interactivity, which in this case is used for the photo gallery, chapter index, Fig. It continues with a chapter on what is a geopark with brief references to the The text can be edited by the user allowing underlined, EGN and GGN. From here on, the geological sites are highlighted or notes. The guide concludes with additional chapters on The basic schemes of the print edition are interactive in geological itineraries, general notes on the geology of the electronic one.

Incorporation of new animations like that Villuercas Ibores Jara, the geological map and the fossil lets us know the geological sites in which each geological record. In the wards of the print edition, some space is period has representation and vice versa. It incorporates a enabled to house the map of geological sites with their new geological map of the Geopark that enables both location. That gives graphical and interactive way fig. All chapters are in the access to the whole geological map or to the surrounding lower band of the screen and the user can choose any of area of a single geosite.

Geological sections are also them with a simple tap. Once inside, the contents of each incorporated of every great folding structure, batholiths and chapter are also visible in the lower band in order to access spheroidal weathering zones.

Two new schemes explain the the geosite of our choice right from the hypertext index Ordovician fossil record and a figurative idea of the life chapter or from this lower band fig. The text contents are position of Cloudina carinata, one of the Ediacaran first the same and also the basic schemes of the print edition, but metazoans with carbonate exoskeleton that was described in. All new drawings have been made by Antonio Grajera, draughtsman of great experience in nature issues. Its wide graphics set and its interactivity adds obvious advantages over the printed edition.

It avoids the concept of obsolescence because it can be corrected, enlarged and even enhanced with a simple job of updating that would come automatically and free of charge to all users who have already downloaded. The guides facilitate the understanding of the text or give a clearer idea were realized thanks to the financial support from Plan to Promote of the importance of the geosites fig. Besides the already mentioned geological map, the map of geological sites also enables interactivity to facilitate direct access to the text or to guide the on-site access fig.

The device can be used in the classroom with the support of a projector. Thanks to the schemes, glossaries and textual content, is easy to explain some of the geological concepts taught in primary and secondary education fig. It must be recalled that geosites themselves have already the function of field-explaining the geological processes affecting the territory.

Teachers and students can interact with the guide to access to the content and prepare field Fig. This research of Chile. As a first step, an inventory of the geological heritage selected and described 38 geosites representing the high geodiversity of of the county was made as part of a thesis project of the the region of Central Andes in Chile. The subduction of the climbing, rafting, mountain biking, fishing, camping, hot Nazca Plate beneath the South American Plate generates springs and outdoor walks; iii There are important intense volcanism and tectonic deformation originating a vast conservation initiatives in the territory, especially dedicated to petrological diversity.

With such a geodiversity, the Chilean geoheritage This classification commits the government to promote the must have worldwide significance. However, this geological sustainable tourism development in the area, the stimulation of heritage is not yet properly identified and no national productive activities related to tourism, the protection of geoconservation strategy is implemented so far.

Nevertheless, natural and cultural resources, among others; v Due to the some initiatives are already in place, such as the National significant geological resources present in the county, there is a Geosites Programme, driven by the Geological Society of constant interest in implementing major water projects and Chile www. The creation of a geopark in This paper presents the Caj n del Maipo Geopark Project, San os de Maipo could be an alternative of land-use another and still incipient endeavor for the creation of a according to the wishes of the local population, which seek a geopark in Chile, under the auspices of the Geological Society sustainable development and convivial with the natural of Chile.

The selected area corresponds to the limits of San environment of their territory; vi Despite being a country os county in the Central Andes region Fig. Thus, the establishment of a geopark near the capital, where Mediterranean scrub and High Andean Steppe.

The public-private environment. This county borders Argentina to the east with the boundary corresponding to the modern volcanic arc that includes active volcanoes such as Tupungatito, Marmolejo and San os. In this mountainous landscape there are peaks with altitudes ranging from m La Obra to 6, m Tupungato Volcano and nine peaks rising over 5, m.

The Caj n del Maipo is the name given to this valley, which has been formed by the action of the Maipo River. With a hydrographic baasin with an area of about 5, km2, the Maipo River is the main source of water for the capital.

The rocks of this region record about million years of geological history and a wide geodiversity including marine urassic rocks, volcanic and plutonic rocks of the Cenozoic, folds and faults that show intense tectonic activity, volcanoes, hot springs, glaciers, mineral deposits, and Holocene sedimentary deposits of fluvial, glacial, volcanic, and gravitational origin Thiele, The water is sodium chloride type emerging with a temperature of 44 C Bustamante et al.

The water characterized by winter rains, temperatures that can range from emerges from a rock wall with vertical layers of the fossiliferous Lo Valdes C depending on the season, and a dry season that laasts Formation.

Above 3, m there is a mountain climate with precipitation in the form of rain and snnow. To mention just two of them, Monumento Natural El network. Part of this road neettwork can be seen in San os de Morado is a park under public administration located in Maipo county, which ends at the Santuario de Altura del cerro altitudes of around 5, m. This is the peaka s, the San Francisco Glacier and its moraines, the San southernmost Incan ceremonial and religious site, located at Francisco Lagoon, the braided river Estero El Morado and its 5, m high.

Maipo county was based on the most recent methodological approaches for instance, Lima et al. Every inventory must have a clear aim in order to justify the most appropriate criteria to support the geosiittes selection. The inventory aim must integrate the topic, the vvalue, the scale, and the use. The topic is the subject or theme to be inventoried — for this work the geological heritage ass a whole.

The value can be scientific, educational, touristtic, cultural, among others, and is related closely to the use — the geosites were selected based on their scientific value. The scale refers to the geographical area where the inventorying occurrs — the San os de Maipo county. Finally, the use is related to the purpose of the inventoried geosites — in this work, this iinventory will be used to support the implementation of a geoppark.

The selection of geosites was based on 4 criteria: i Representativeness the ability of geosites to show the best charracteristics of geological materials and processes ; ii Integrity current status of conservation ; iii Rarity number of occurrences of the same type in the studied Fig. This glacier is 6. The Caj n del Maipo is a well-known tourism destination located in Central Andes.

This area is visited by national and foreign tourists and is part of the San os de Maipo county, which has an area of kkm2 and about 13, inhabitants, contrasting with the nearly 6. San os de Maipo is a semi- rural county with an unemployment rate of 9. With The major economic activities of this area are mining, electrical energy production, livestock and agriculture.

However, the Strategic Plan of the Province considers San os de Maipo a county with high potential for ecotourism, nature and environment and establishes tourism as Fig. Experts World Heritage. The first one is the hapaq Nan orr Main on the geology of this area were contacted in order to receive Andean Road , an international initiative of Argentina, Bolivia, their opinion about potential geosites. After these 2 stages, After priorities.

These 38 geosites represent different geologgical of this territory, including local and regional authorities, citizen frameworks present in the Central Andes of Chile, such as: groups devoted to the tourism iindustry, nature conservation, landslides, volcanoes and their materials, tectonic and environmental education, and ssocio-economic development.

We expect that this information, together with other Among the 38 selected geosites, 10 have geomorphologgical experiences of national and international Geoparks, will interest, 7 tectonicc, 6 petrological, 3 hydrogeological, 3 stimulate the creation of the Caj n del Maipo Geopark.

Bibllioteca del Congreso Nacional de Chile. Baeza, O. Memoria para optar al T tulo de Ge logo. Departammento de Geolog a, Universidad de Chile. Bustamante M. Regi n Metropolitana de Santiago. Santiago In dito. Charrier, R. II Encuentro de estudiantes de Geologa. The fluid flow was facilitated by the occurrence of the El Diablo fault, an Departamento de Geolog a, Facultad de Ciencias F sicas y active tectonic structure Charrier, Matem ticas, Universidad de Chile.

Lima F. Geoheritage, Vol. PAC Consultores. Schilling, M. Between Araucan a. Thiele, R. All geosites already selected will be assessed for their scientific, tourist and educational values, together with their vulnerability evaluation, in order to establish management. E-mail: [email protected] b Instituto Nazionale di geofisica e Vulcanologia sez. ABSTRACT Patagonia represents a key area for understanding the role of the southern hemisphere in regulating climate during the last Thanks to its geographic position, Patagonia , can be considered a hundred of thousand years.

From the Andes to the Atlantic strategic land for the studies of climate changes. In this work the main coast, Patagonia preserves an impressive geological record of geomorphological features of the Bahia Bustamante coastal area are depicted. Moreover, the relevance of these features for the studies of the glacial events and sea-level oscillations. The uaternary palaeo sea level are stressed. The concomitance past climate.

These natural archives can offer precious of a high geological, biological and hystorical interest make the study area information on local relative sea-level changes, tectonic and particularly suitable for the promotion of a sustainable tourism. In this context several sectors of the C Gulf of S. This work is aimed to highlight the geological makes it a unique region in the word. Charles Darwin was the heritage of Bahia Bustamante area Fig. A geomorphological survey carried out in the area of Bahia Bustamante allowed the reconstruction of the main geomorphological features, suggesting the landscape evolution of this territory.

Here, an outstanding succession of raised beach deposits is exposed for a total area of more than km2, extending up to 10 km landward and reaching m of elevation a. Past landforms and deposits are particularly well preserved because weathering processes are very limited. The oldest rocky substrate, Complejo Marifil, consists of Jurassic rhyolites, ignimbrites and volcanoclastic conglomerates.

It is often covered by thin to very thick debris deposits and crops out basically in current and paleo rocky Fig. The , , but probably MIS 11 and older beach ridges landward part of the area is characterized by the outcrop of a could be preserved here. In addition to the beach ridges pediment surface covered by rounded volcanic pebbles and commonly used as sea level markers also in other sector of the gravels in a sandy matrix, occasionally strongly cemented by Patagonian coast, in the study area have been identified also carbonate.

Wave action is the most important geomorphologic notches carved in volcanic rock Fig. Even if studies on this agent responsible for the past and present landscape. The coast topic are still in progress, their localization seem to be related is characterized by a high-energy system with intense storms to the High tide level providing additional information on and a macrotidal regime.

Unfortunately, tidal data are not palaeo sea level. A large marine deposits and number of depressed areas lying in a back-beach ridge position erosional forms of high are one of the characteristic elements of this region. In gypsum, that locally form crusts Fig. This area is particular the Bahia particularly relevant for geological evidences of sea level Bustamante area, due to oscillations, especially for the great number and the the great number and the dimensions of beach ridges.

Preliminary data suggest that there excellent state of preservation of its landforms, represents one of the areas where the uaternary period is best represented in all the Argentinean coast. Past landforms and deposits are in fact, particularly well Fig. The landscape is dominated by the outcrops of marine Fig. It occurs during periods of sea-level fall which results in marine regression. The shoreline has been built Cionchi J. The waves activity rips benthic animals from Actas Simposio Oscilaciones del nivel del Mar durante el the seafloor and accumulates them within beach ridges.

Thanks to the great Isola I. This area provides a gulf Chubut, Argentina. Journal of Maps, , Programa Nacional background. This sector of coast Poli G. Regione Emilia is an environment of high natural values however, it is — Romagna, Edizioni Pendragon Bologna , pp. Moreover in addition to the significant geological the Cabo Raso bay Atlantic Patagonian coast, Argentina.

From the biological point of view, the coastal area is D The bird-watchers come to Bahia Bustamante to Schellmann G. Journal of Coastal Research 19, From a historical point of view, a small Schellmann G. Today a modern alguera systems, littoral terraces and valley-mouth terraces. Moreover, Zanchetta G. Biological and historical heritage Chubut, Argentina. Italian Journal of Geosciences combined with geological heritage are key elements to support 1 , In this regard the area of Bahia Bustamante is suitable to promote a geological tourism and more in general knowledge on Earth Science.

Maria 53, , Pisa, Italy. In the understanding of evolutionary landscape processes. In this study we introduce a new approach for the study of geological GE G CA E G hazards in rocky coast and present preliminary results from 5 selected areas in Tuscany.

Criteria for a safe tourist use of coastal areas are suggested and the The 5 selected areas from north to south are: Calafuria, need for the development of knowledge on geological heritage is Punta Miglio, Poggio San Leonardo, Baratti e Punta Rocchette indicated. The Tuscan coast is km long, ages; Carmignani e Lazzarotto The morphology and geomorphological evolution of high The regional study at scale , has used geological coasts is strongly related to a very complex interaction and geomorphological data from Tuscany Region, and between rocks features, a large number of natural geological photo-interpretation.

The information has been morphogenic factors and human activities. All these factors processed using a Geographical Information System GIS , together induce irreversible erosional processes Sunamura, which allowed: control of data quality, coherence between ; Trenhaile, ; Finkl, ; Pranzini, ; Naylor et data collected and project objectives, standardisation and al. The geological and geomorphological The regional study has been performed on the entire rocky coastline of Tuscany, islands included.

It applying the methods suggested by the Italian working group proposes a method to quantify, rank and map the distribution on rocky coasts Valente et al. The local study has been developed on 5 areas, characterised by different geological settings and high levels of human presence.

For each area, criteria have been defined for safe human use. They include information signs that use coded and iconographic language. The Interacti e Intensity value causes effect results from the interaction of all involved parameters and is an indicator of the equilibrium condition of the entire system. This value allowed to define 3 classes whole cliff, whereas geomorphological surveys aimed at of instability.

Class Lithotecnical surveys aimed at defining the setting of boundary values are strongly related to the variation of discontinuities and the uniaxial strength values Barton and Interactive Intensity It , considering that increasing values Choubey, ; ISRM, ; Bieniawski, , ; give more instable systems, and to VP,k values given to Budetta et al.

The interpretation of lithotecnical data parameters. This allowed an objective formulation, minimizing the The regional geological cartography outlines the outcrop personal interpretation, of relationships between all geological, of very heterogeneous lithologies along the Tuscan coast. In geomechanical and geomorphological parameters in the order to relate different lithologies to numerical parameters, considered rocky coastal system.

Two different interaction they have been grouped into three different categories: i matrixes have been used for the regional and local studies. Moreover, gravitational processes aspect, fractured; ii mono- and poly-lithologic rocks, with dynamics are strongly related to lithological changes between stratification, fractured; iii over-consolidated cohesive clay, the base and the top of the cliff, inducing landslides that heterogeneous chaotic terrains.

The tectonic setting is classified as dip-slop, anti dip-slop and oblique strata. It is characterised by localised rockfall deposits or 4 widespread landslides with erosive and deposition forms. Cliff 2 exposure is mainly western and southwestern; short coastal sectors, localised near major promontories, are characterised 0 Lithology by northern and northeastern exposure.

The most dominant parameters C liff exposure are lithology and lithotecnic features Fig. Geomechanical gently dipping seaward about 20 , made of strongly data show SMR 36,83, class 4, suggesting low stability, given cemented sandstones.

The structural setting is mostly by the detachment of metric and decametric blocks. The interpretation of geomechanical data gives a erosion and slope processes, driven by the intense fracturing value of SMR 65,66, class 2, with good stability and a low of the rocky mass. Evolutionary processes are closely related Results of the field survey show as lithology and SMR to lithological and tectonic features, highly conditioned by parameter including uniaxial strength and discontinuity strata dipping.

Rockfalls are mainly related to processes of setting are dominant on the system. Geomorphological slope dynamics. The tectonic setting is characterised by weakly Wave action is characterised by a high value of interactive dip-slip strata. Geomechanical data interpretation gives a intensity, with a role that is simultaneously prevailing erosion value of SMR 26,55, class 5, meaning low stability given by of the cliff base, alteration in rock and discontinuities and the detachment of metric polyhedral blocks.

Lithology and subordinate cliff morphology, lithology, exposure, geomechanical features induce mainly rockfall processes, geomechanical features, landslide deposits at the cliff base. Cliff slope and previous instability are cliff, 40 m high, made of strongly cemented sandstones. The the most interactive parameters; they interact with all strata setting is counter-slope. Geomechanical data parameters in terms of cause and effect, pointing out their interpretation gives a value of SMR 37,99, class 4, meaning importance in geomorphological evolution.

Nevertheless there is no on-site high, made of sandy sediments at the base, and gravelly sands information in these areas explaining the hazard level of the strongly cemented in the middle and upper parts. The cliff site. The few existing panels are usually incomprehensible for aspect is mainly massive, without stratification; main foreigners.

In fact the language used is usually Italian. In these context we propose the use of ISO deposits. Paths from the upper part of a cliff to the sea are usually very dangerous, but tourists are often unaware and unequipped to cross them, differently from what happens in mountain trails. It seems clear that the mere placing of bans is not an adequate form of managing coastal areas.

A good management of the territory must inform tourists and local communities the reasons for the prohibition. This allows greater awareness of the danger inherent to the territory, leading to more appropriate use of coastal areas. Cliffs are often a friendly interface for reading the geological history of an area, and represent an unique opportunity for the promotion of geological heritage. Among the studied areas an example of panel showing the turbites formation, fossil contents and ancient quarries the Calafuria cliff is presented to increase the awareness of the geological value and developing tourism.

The Instability Index allows the classification of coastal sectors into three different hazard levels, at regional and local scales. Punta del Miglio and Poggio San Leonardo areas are characteriszed by the same values of interactive intensity. Nevertheless, they are characterised by a different propensity Fig. This visitors come from various countries. The area is characterised by high coasts, with sub-vertical slope angle, rocky lythotypes rockfall hazard ISl Geomorfologia costiera, impatto antropico e difesa dei litorali.

Research carried out within the Program P. Progetto CARG: linee guida per il rilevamento geologico, la the images used in the panel of Calafuria. Guida al AA. Studi Costieri, Rilevamento. Servizio Geologico Nazionale, uaderni 10, pp.

Barton N. Guida rock joints in theory and practice. Rock Mechanics, 10, 1- al Rilevamento. Servizio Geologico Nazionale, uaderni Trenhaile A. Geomorphology, 48, The RMR system and future trends. Valente A. Randazzo G. Guida D. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference Carmignani L. Regione Toscana Violante C,. Servizio Geologico. Publication, , pp. De Pippo T. Geomorphology, 97, In: Violante C.

Geological Society of London, Special Publication, , pp. Emery K. Geological Society of American Bulletin, 93, Finkl C. ISRM - Suggested methods for quantitative description of discontinuities in rock masses.

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