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Hydrogen from wood gasification with CCS – a techno-environmental analysis of production and use as transport fuel†. Specifically, in Chapter 2 we test a new framework relating hydraulic and more 'standard' traits across species at the global scale. In Chapter.

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Опубликовано в Operation ivy energy tpb torrents | Октябрь 2, 2012

j.b. wood consumption torrent

In human history, cellulose-based materials obtained from wood, cotton, However, the inefficient use of cellulose no longer meets the. Specifically, in Chapter 2 we test a new framework relating hydraulic and more 'standard' traits across species at the global scale. In Chapter. and recovering materials in production/distribution and consumption processes, thus operating at the micro level (products, companies, consumers), meso level . MI JUEGOS PARA PSP TORRENT Description is different from Wikidata Use mdy dates from May Articles needing additional references from the Export permission by the Administrator All articles with unsourced statements Articles will be able to print the report. Consisting of a. Additionally, you can manually check if to your network service plan in evaluation paths through that adequate storage.

The national government encouraged the mine safety movement as a means of limiting strife in the sometimes turbulent coal fields. Polish, Spanish and other immigrants were brought in to provide a stable labor force at the end of the war. The first important mines appeared in the s, in the valleys of the rivers Ruhr, Inde and Wurm where coal seams outcropped and horizontal adit mining was possible. In the Krupp family began operations near Essen.

After entrepreneurs in the Ruhr Area , which then became part of Prussia took advantage of the tariff zone Zollverein to open new mines and associated iron smelters. New railways were built by British engineers around Numerous small industrial centres sprang up, focused on ironworks , using local coal. The iron and steel works typically bought mines, and erected coking ovens to supply their own requirements in coke and gas. These integrated coal-iron firms "Huettenzechen" became numerous after ; after they became mixed firms called "Konzern.

The average output of a mine in was about 8, short tons 7, t ; its employment about By , the average mine's output had risen to , short tons , t and the employment to about 1, In output was down to 73 million short tons 66 Mt , growing to Mt in Output peaked in at million Mt , declining to 78 million short tons 71 Mt in The last hard coal mine in Germany closed on December 21, The miners in the Ruhr region were divided by ethnicity with Germans and Poles and religion Protestants and Catholics.

Mobility in and out of the mining camps to nearby industrial areas was high. The miners split into several unions, with an affiliation to a political party. As a result, the socialist union affiliated with the Social Democratic Party competed with Catholic and Communist unions until , when the Nazis took over all of them. After the socialists came to the fore. Coal was not known during the Mughal rule despite their contact with Europeans.

Due to a lack of demand growth was sluggish until , with the introduction of steam locomotives to the fast-expanding rail system. As late as , India imported large quantities of coal from Britain, but as domestic production increased and was found to be suitable for locomotives and ships, demand for coal imports declined dramatically. India's export of coal increased, especially to Burma, Ceylon, and the Malay states.

By production had risen to an annual average of 1 million tonne mt and India was producing 6. The production reached a level of 29 mts. After India became independent, the new government stressed the rapid growth of heavy industry. The founding of this body was major step in the development of an indigenous Indian coal sector. The first permanent coal mine in Poland was established in Szczakowa near Jaworzno in In 19th century development of iron, copper and lead mining and processing in southern Poland notably in the Old-Polish Industrial Region and later in the region of Silesia led to a quick development of coal mining.

Before and after World War II Poland has been one of the major coal producers worldwide, usually listed among the five largest. However, after the coal production is in decline, with the overall production for reaching million metric tons, million metric tons in and million metric tons in It was used by railways and the iron and steel industry. After smaller deposits near Dombrovo, Zabaikal and Cheremkhovo in Siberia were opened.

Small older mines south of Moscow also operated. Coal production was controlled by inefficient Russo-British syndicates, and there were shortages of workers, so the companies set up welfare systems for them. Their smallish output and the weak Russian railway system centered on the Ekaterininskaia Krivoi Rog Railway held back the growth of Russian heavy industry.

In the Urals produced only half the fuel needed by local industry. During the war the mines were expanded and over factories were evacuated from the west, greatly increasing the demand for Ural coal. Prisoners from the Gulag were sent to the mines; up to a third of the workers were women. The miners were given much higher rations of food. In militant coal miners in Russia and Ukraine were the mainstay of the revolutionary forced which finally overthrew the Communist system in Today the Donets Basin is the major coal-mining district in eastern Ukraine and adjacent portions of Russia.

Production during was Although some deep mining took place as early as the s in North East England , and along the Firth of Forth coast [49] [50] deep shaft mining in the UK began to develop extensively in the late 18th century, with rapid expansion throughout the 19th century and early 20th century when the industry peaked. The location of the coalfields helped to make the prosperity of Lancashire , of Yorkshire , and of South Wales. The Yorkshire pits which supplied Sheffield were only about feet deep.

Northumberland and Durham were the leading coal producers and they were the sites of the first deep pits. In much of Britain coal was worked from drift mines , or scraped off when it outcropped on the surface. Small groups of part-time miners used shovels and primitive equipment. Scottish miners had been bonded to their "maisters" by a Act "Anent Coalyers and Salters". A Colliers and Salters Scotland Act , recognised this to be "a state of slavery and bondage" and formally abolished it; this was made effective by a further law in Before a great deal of coal was left in place as extraction was still primitive.

As a result, in the deep Tyneside pits to 1, ft deep only about 40 percent of the coal could be extracted. The use of wooden pit props to support the roof was an innovation first introduced about The critical factor was circulation of air and control of dangerous explosive gases.

At first fires were burned at the bottom of the "upcast" shaft to create air currents and circulate air, but replaced by fans driven by steam engines. Protection for miners came with the invention of the Davy lamp and Geordie lamp , where any firedamp or methane burnt harmlessly within the lamp. It was achieved by preventing the combustion spreading from the light chamber to the outside air with either metal gauze or fine tubes, but the illumination from such lamps was very poor.

Coal was so abundant in Britain that the supply could be stepped up to meet the rapidly rising demand. In the annual output of coal was just under 3 million tons. After output soared, reaching 16 million long tons by at the height of the Napoleonic War. By this had risen to over 30 million tons [53] The miners, less affected by imported labour or machines than were the cotton mill workers, had begun to form trade unions and fight their grim battle for wages against the coal owners and royalty-lessees.

Use of women and children at a fraction of the cost of men was common until abolished in an Act of August In South Wales, the miners showed a high degree of solidarity. They lived in isolated villages where the miners comprised the great majority of workers. There was a high degree of equality in life style; combined with an evangelical religious style based on Methodism, leading to an ideology of egalitarianism.

They forged a "community of solidarity" - under the leadership of the Miners Federation. The union supported first the Liberal Party, then after Labour, with some Communist Party activism at the fringes. The need to maintain coal supplies a primary energy source had figured in both world wars. Much of the 'old Left ' of British politics can trace its origins to coal-mining areas, with the main labour union being the Miners' Federation of Great Britain , founded in The MFGB claimed , members in Although other factors were involved, one cause of the UK General Strike of was concerns colliers had over very dangerous working conditions, reduced pay and longer shifts.

Technological development throughout the 19th and 20th centuries helped both to improve the safety of colliers and the productive capacity of collieries they worked. In the late 20th century, improved integration of coal extraction with bulk industries such as electrical generation helped coal maintain its position despite the emergence of alternative energies supplies such as oil, natural gas and, from the late s, nuclear power used for electricity.

More recently coal has faced competition from renewable energy sources and bio-fuels. Most of the coal mines in Britain were purchased by the government in and put under the control of the National Coal Board , with only the smaller mines left in private ownership. The NUM had campaigned for nationalisation for decades and, once it was achieved, sought to work with the NCB in managing the industry and discouraged strikes.

Under the chairmanship of Alf Robens , pit closures became widespread as coal's place in energy generation declined. The NUM leadership continued to resist calls for strike action, but an unofficial strike began in after a conference pledge on the hours of surface-workers was not acted upon. This was a watershed moment that led to increased spending on the coal industry and a much slower rate of pit closures, as well as the election of more militant officials to the NUM leadership.

Under the government of Ted Heath, an official strike in won increased wages after the Wilberforce Commission. Less than two years later, Heath called a general election over another official strike, called after an overtime ban had led to a Three Day Week in Britain, and lost the election to the Labour Party. The wage demands were then met and spending on the industry continued to increase, including the establishment of the new Selby Coalfield. By the early s, many pits were almost years old and were considered uneconomic [57] to work at current wage rates compared to cheap North Sea oil and gas, and in comparison to subsidy levels in Europe.

The Miners' Strike of failed to stop the Conservative government's plans under Margaret Thatcher to shrink the industry, and a break-away Union of Democratic Mineworkers was founded by miners, mostly in the Midlands, who felt that the NUM had broken its own democratic rules in calling the strike.

The National Coal Board by then British Coal , was privatised by selling off a large number of pits to private concerns through the mids. Because of exhausted seams, high prices and cheap imports, the mining industry disappeared almost completely, despite the militant protests of some miners. The coal was exhausted. Kellingley Colliery was the last deep coal mine in operation in the UK and its last coaling shift was on 18 December when coaling operations ceased with the loss of jobs bringing deep coal mining in the UK to an end in its entirety, a skeleton team of men will remain to service the colliery until it is finally dismantled.

Coal mining was never a major industry in Ireland, apart from a spell in the midth century when east Tyrone collieries were at their peak. Deerpark Mines was the largest opencast site. In , it got rail connections and reached peak production in the s. Anthracite or "hard" coal , clean and smokeless, became the preferred fuel in cities, replacing wood by about Bituminous or "soft coal" mining came later. In the mid-century Pittsburgh was the principal market.

After soft coal, which is cheaper but dirtier, came into demand for railway locomotives and stationary steam engines , and was used to make coke for steel after Total coal output soared until ; before , it doubled every ten years, going from 8. The Great Depression of the s lowered the demand to million short tons Mt in Under John L.

Lewis , the United Mine Workers UMW became the dominant force in the coal fields in the s and s, producing high wages and benefits. At the same time steam engines were phased out in railways and factories, and bituminous coal was used primarily for the generation of electricity. Employment in bituminous peaked at , men in , falling to , by and 70, in UMW membership among active miners fell from , in to only 16, in , as coal mining became more mechanized and non-union miners predominated in the new coal fields.

In the s a series of mergers saw coal production shift from small, independent coal companies to large, more diversified firms. Several oil companies and electricity producers acquired coal companies or leased Federal coal reserves in the west of the United States. Concerns that competition in the coal industry could decline as a result of these changes were heightened by a sharp rise in coal prices in the wake of the oil crisis.

Coal prices fell in the s, partly in response to oil price movements, but primarily in response to the large increase in supply worldwide which was brought about by the earlier price surge. During this period, the industry in the U. In Wyoming became the largest coal producing state. It uses strip mining exclusively. Wyoming's coal reserves total about In , competition was intense in the US coal mining industry with some U.

Coal is used primarily to generate electricity, but the rapid drop in natural gas prices after created severe competition. In the 21st century, Indonesia has expanded its coal mining and by ranked 5 globally in production. Lignite "brown coal" remains important with Germany, China and Russia the largest producers. Mining has always been especially dangerous, because of explosions, roof cave-ins, and the difficulty of underground rescue.

The worst single disaster in British coal mining history was at Senghenydd in the South Wales coalfield. On the morning of 14 October an explosion and subsequent fire killed men and boys. Only 72 bodies were recovered. It followed a series of many extensive Mining accidents in the late 19th century, such as The Oaks explosion of and the Hartley Colliery Disaster of Most of the explosions were caused by firedamp ignitions followed by coal dust explosions.

At Hartley there was no explosion, but the miners entombed when the single shaft was blocked by a broken cast iron beam from the haulage engine. Deaths were mainly caused by carbon monoxide poisoning, known as afterdamp. The Benxihu Colliery accident in China on April 26, , killed 1, miners. As well as disasters directly affecting mines, there have been disasters attributable to the impact of mining on the surrounding landscapes and communities. The Aberfan disaster in buried a school in South Wales when a huge slag heap collapsed, killing children and 28 adults.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with Western culture and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this section , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new section, as appropriate. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Parts of this article those related to Coal Mining Casualties need to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.

January Main article: Coal mining in the United Kingdom. Main article: History of coal mining in the United States. Main article: Mining disasters. Coal: A Human History. Penguin Books. ISBN Power," providing "71 percent of the nation's energy. Speight El caso de Lota, Chile". The Holocene. Bibcode : Holoc.. S2CID The agitated fermentation is easily amplified to a large scale of industrial production Chen G. Although BC gels produced by the two methods show very different macroscopic morphologies, they maintain the same microstructure of 3D reticulated network CPKelco Inc, Furthermore, BC obtained in agitated culture has a lower degree of polymerization and a lower crystallinity in comparison with that produced in static culture Watanabe et al.

The mechanical properties of BC produced by the two methods are also different. BC yielded in static culture represents a higher Yong's modulus compared with that produced in agitated culture Krystynowicz et al. However, BC from agitated culture has a higher water holding capability and suspension viscosity than that from static culture Krystynowicz et al. In view of the differences in morphologies and properties, the applications of BC produced by the two methods are also dissimilar. For instance, the static fermentation is preferred for the production of raw materials requiring fixed geometries, well wet tensile strength and high-water holding capability, such as nano de coco, wound dressing, and face mask etc.

On the other hand, BC produced by agitated fermentation represents the superiority in suspending stability, which is majorly used for particulate suspension in the beverages. Figure 6. BC produced via static and agitated fermentation. For both static and agitated methods, culture medium is the most important part for BC production, which not only provides the necessary nutrients for bacterial growth and BC production, but also significantly impacts structures and yields of BC as well as its mechanical and physical properties Jozala et al.

A typical fermentation medium is at least comprised of a carbon source, a nitrogen source, and certain nutrient elements such as phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, and magnesium Andriani et al. The typical culture medium used for BC production is first described by Hestrin and Schramm It contains 2. The pH value of the medium is adjusted to 6. However, the production cost is too high to impede the industrial process of BC. There are two routes to reduce the production cost.

To date, there are several ways to promote the yield of BC: I isolating new bacterial strains that efficiently produce BC from the nature Yang et al. The standard HS medium is expensive due to the high-cost of nutrients. However, the bacteria can be fed with different carbon sources such as glucose, sucrose, fructose, mannitol, arabitol, and molasses and nitrogen sources such as yeast extract, peptone, and corn steep liquor; Keshk and Sameshima, ; Buldum et al.

The use of these substituted nutrients significantly reduces the production cost of BC and additionally alleviates environmental pollution induced by the improper discard of the industrial wastes. After fermentation, the raw BC pellets are not pure, which contain bacterial cells, nutrient residues, and metabolic substances. Thus, a purification process is required to obtain high purity of BC. Cellulose in plant cells tightly co-exists with hemicellulose, lignin and pectin, which are not easily removed.

However, BC can be easily purified via a routine method Moniri et al. Currently, BC has been industrially produced and widely used in diverse areas. Donini et al. Moreover, the production area required for BC fermentation is much smaller than that needed for the plant growth, and the purification of BC is simple and less of pollution compared with the procedure of cellulose extraction from woods.

Additionally, the agricultural and industrial wastes are commonly utilized in the commercial fermentation, which not only reduces the cost but also diminishes the waste-induced pollution Hussain et al. Therefore, BC can be a competitive alternative for plant-based cellulose nanofibers in certain application areas. BC-based products have gained a huge market success, especially in food areas. Nata de coco is so far the main commercial product of BC, which is harvested from static fermentation by using coconut water as nutrient source.

It is sold in the terms of slabs and diced pieces in the market depending on the customer's requirements. A techno-economic analysis of industrial-scale fermentation of BC has been performed using Super-Pro Designer software by Dourado et al. Although BC production is highly capital-intensive, researchers, and manufacturers have been working on the development of new ways to reduce the production cost via isolation of high yield of strains, optimization of fermentation reactors, and utilization of low-cost nutrient substrates Ul-Islam et al.

To date, both the static and agitated fermentations have been successfully used for the industrial production of BC Figure 7. The G. The static fermentation is first used for the industrial production of BC, which can be early traced back to s in Philippine to produce nata de coco Iguchi et al. The nata de coco holds a series of unique properties of jelly-like morphology, cool and crisp tastes, and near-zero cholesterol Ullah et al.

Therefore, it becomes into a very popular raw food material that is widely used as dessert, additives to drinks, sauce and stuffing, and garnish to dishes Azeredo et al. Later, the nata de coco is prevalent in Japan and other south Asian countries, which accelerates the industrial production of BC. In China, the industrial production of BC is initiated by Zhong She isolated a G. They majorly adopt the static fermentation to produce BC Figures 7a,b. Up to now, this company has developed into one of the biggest manufacturers for BC products in the world.

Figure 7. Industrial production of BC via static and agitated fermentation. Reproduced with permission from Hainan Yeguo Foods Co. Reproduced with permission from Kusano Sakko Inc A series of problems are encountered during the industrialized process of static fermentation of BC. The optimum fermentation temperature of G. In Hainan province of China, heating is required to maintain a high temperature for BC production in winter, which inevitably increases the energy consumption.

Moreover, high temperature frequently induces microbial contamination, causing a series of issues related to food safety, production capacity, and environment pollution. This technology enables BC production to be carried out in the cold regions. The agricultural and industrial wastes are used as nutrient sources for BC production to reduce the cost.

Although the coconut water is once an industrial waste, the huge market demand makes it scarce, thus causing its price to rise. Zhong et al. They find the culture media previously fermented by acetic acid bacteria or lactic acid bacteria can obviously enhance the yield of BC.

Therefore, they utilize the agricultural or industrial wastes such as corncob, alcohol waste liquor, pineapple peel, citrus juice, and apple juice to conduct a former fermentation and then used for BC production. This method achieves a comparable yield with the fermentation by using coconut water, thus broadening the nutrient sources for BC production.

The method not only reduces the transport and storage cost of BC, but also endows BC diverse flavor as raw food materials. The agitated fermentation has also been successfully used for industrial BC production Figures 7c,d. The raw BC after purification from agitated fermentation is full of water, which is not suitable for transport and storage. CPKelco, a global company to produce nature-based hydrocolloids, produces BC named as fermentation-derived cellulose via agitated fermentation CPKelco Inc, Furthermore, dry powder forms are also exploited by adding different compound additives Swazey, Kusano Sakko Inc.

They use molasses, a waste by-product in sugar industry instead of coconut water for BC fermentation, as they produce sugar by using sugar beet and sugar cane. Since , they have put great effort in the production and application development of BC, and has given out various potential applications including medical care, food, personal care products, special paper, and resin filler Kusano Sakko Inc, BC has been widely used in the commercial areas of food industry, personal care products, house hold chemicals, biomedicine, textile, composite materials etc.

The detail of the applications in each area is described in the following sections. Azeredo et al. In commercial applications, the forms and functions of BC are varied depending on the fermentation methods. BC produced from static fermentation with a jelly-like pellicle is majorly used as raw materials for food dessert and food ingredients Figures 8A,B ; Hainan Yeguo Foods Co.

The human body lacks cellulase. Therefore, BC cannot be digested and absorbed in the gastrointestinal system, and is eliminated out of the body in the feces Fontana et al. Figure 8. BC particles used in food products as additives. Reproduced with permission from San-Ei Gen The earliest application of BC in food can be dated to the s in Philippines Iguchi et al. Nata de coco is praised for the high and pure fiber content, near-zero calories, and cholesterol counts Ullah et al.

Thus, it like the dietary fiber taken from daily foods to benefit the human health via reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease etc. Anderson et al. It is early enjoyed as a dessert due to the cool and smooth feeling, crunchy texture, as well as juicy taste. It is also exploited as an additive to endow the food new texture and flavor Shi et al. Now, nata de coco can be found in a variety of foods such as drinks, yogurt, pies, sausages, and salads.

It is early prevalent in Philippines, and then prevalent in Japan and other Asian countries in the s Dourado et al. On the other hand, BC is employed as a functional additive for the food industry. There are plenty of beverages and liquid foods that have particulate components such as milk beverages, coffee, porridge, and soybean milk, which need suspension. Generally, thickeners and surfactant agents like xanthan gum, pectin, CMC, soybean polysaccharide are added in the liquid products to suspend particulates Dourado et al.

However, these formulations commonly represent a poor suspension stability, and are often troubled with transparency interferences and phase separation John McArthur Swazey and Madison, Moreover, the high viscosity also causes unpleasant taste to customers. Therefore, new suspension agents with excellent dispersion stability and low viscosity are required. Under this condition, BC pellets produced by agitated fermentation are found to have the great characteristic to well fulfill the function to suspend particulates Figure 8C ; San-Ei Gen, BC has a unique structure of nanofiber-weaved 3D reticulated network, which endows it excellent capability to suspend insoluble particulates with low viscosity Swazey, It can well perform the suspension function at a low concentration, and it also works well even in the presence of high concentrations of surfactants and thickeners.

Moreover, BC is suspended rather than solubilized in solution, and it is uncharged. This feature allows BC to be minimally affected by environment factors such as acidity and ionic strength Swazey, Therefore, BC maintains the suspension capability in a wide range of pH values, and has great toleration with salts. Due to the high degree of crystallinity, BC also represents an excellent enzyme resistant Torres et al.

These advantages make BC a cost-effective and non-substitutable suspension agent for particulates. In this formulation, sorbic acid is also added to prevent mold Swazey et al. The wet cake is activated via high-speed shearing to recover the dispersed form in solution. Swazey, These co-agents allow BC to recover the dispersed state when meet water.

However, the co-agents somehow adversely affect the suspension stability of BC, as they are commonly charged polymers. When the dry powder used in a solution with low acidic value or high ionic strength, these charged polymers may become insoluble to lose their functions, and thus inversely cause the suspension system to become unstable or non-transparent John McArthur Swazey and Madison, The patent John McArthur Swazey and Madison, applied by CPKelco gives out a solution method that involves a polymer degrader within the dry powder form.

The polymer degraders can be enzymes, oxidizers and metal ions, which can selectively degrade the co-agents without interfering the function of BC John McArthur Swazey and Madison, They have also demonstrated that BC is able to prevent the sedimentation of particulates for a long period over 1 month , and BC has an excellent resistance to acid, salt and heat San-Ei Gen, Taken together, these commercialized applications suggest that BC has a huge market in the food industry areas Shi et al.

The second large application area of BC is personal care products and household chemicals Bianchet et al. The component materials used in personal care products should be non-toxic and biocompatible. Thus, natural product with high purity and high safety is favored by costumers. BC is a natural product generated via microbial fermentation, which has been demonstrated to be highly biocompatible Roman, In the personal care products, BC pellicles harvested from static fermentation have been exploited as raw materials for face masks Figure 9 ; Hainan Yeguo Foods Co.

In comparison with non-woven cellulose or silk face masks, BC-composed face masks have more excellent water holding capability and give a favorable feeling of coolness and smoothness owing to its nanoscale 3D reticulated network Amnuaikit et al. Moreover, the highly porous microstructure allows BC to load various nutrients and even ingredients with therapeutic functions Chantereau et al. The porous microstructure also imparts BC pellicle a function to control the release of these entrapped agents Numata et al.

Based on this function, the BC-composed face masks can also be used in cosmeceuticals and treatment of mild skin diseases Almeida et al. Figure 9. BC-based raw materials for face mask. Moreover, BC obtained from agitated fermentation also serves as a suspension agent, like the function in foods, to offer an excellent suspension stability for particulates such as decorative micro beads, encapsulated fragrance, and encapsulated enzymes etc.

Swazey and Morrison, a , b. BC has great potential in diverse biomedical applications including wound dressing, artificial skin, dental implant, drug delivery, hemostatic materials, vascular grafts, scaffolds for tissue engineering, biosensor and diagnosis Rajwade et al.

The high purity and biocompatibility of BC are the prerequisite for all the biomedical applications. These distinctive characteristics make BC a very special material to demonstrate its superiority in biomedical applications. BC-based wound dressing devices have been successfully commercialized in the market, and there are also several products related to drug delivery, contact lens, vascular grafts, tympanic membrane replacement on the way of commercial transformation Coelho et al.

Skin is the largest organ of the human body. It protects us from microorganisms, maintains body homeostasis, regulates body temperature, and feels sensations Zhang et al. The diseased skin will lose these functions and cause severe consequences. There are diverse conditions to induce traumatic skin loss by either internal factors such as vascular disease, heart disease and diabetes, or external reasons such as accidents, suffering burn or scald and surgical operations Vogelnest, To regenerate skin, a common treatment procedure involves a routine surgical treatment followed by complete coverage of the skin lesion by using wound dressing.

An ideal wound dressing should maintain moisture of the wound lesion, eliminate exudates, allow perspiration and oxygen exchange, reduce electrolyte and protein loss, avoid infections, reduce pain, and finally accelerate wound healing Portela et al. However, the conventional wound dressings such as gauze and synthetic materials can not satisfy these requirements. BC is initially exploited as wound dressing due to its well moisture control, high wet tensile strength, permeability, flexibility, semitransparent nature, and great biocompatibility Curvello et al.

After the practical use, it is found that BC has a series of additional advantages including eliminating exudates meanwhile allowing perspiration and gas exchange, reducing pain and loss of electrolyte and protein, preventing infections, and accelerating wound closure Abeer et al. These distinguished advantages give birth to BC in the market of wound dressing devices. Abeer et al. BC-based wound dressings show higher efficiency in comparison with these traditionally-used gauze or synthetic materials, and are widely used for the treatment of arterial and venous ulcers, diabetic ulcers, pressure ulcers, burns, post-operative surgical wounds, skin grafts, skin graft sites, abrasions, lacerations etc.

Portela et al. BC-based wound dressings on the market are formulated in a moisture membrane or a dry film Figure Figure 10c ; Axcelon Dermacare Inc, The Nanoderm TM wound dressing is accurately a semitransparent BC film with an average thickness of 0. The dry film can be stored easily without worrying about contamination and growth of mold and bacteria. It has the similar functions and benefits with the wet wound dressing, and has been widely used for treatment of skin diseases.

For instance, Nanoderm TM wound dressing is used for the treatment of skin donor site, which well protects the skin-lost lesions and helps the skin regeneration in 12 days Figure 10e ; Axcelon Dermacare Inc, The chemically-reduced Ag nanoparticles bonded on BC, which slowly release Ag ions to perform the antimicrobial action.

Nanoderm TM Ag also prolongs the interval time for dressing changes due to its antibacterial properties. Moreover, Nanoderm TM series products are economical compared with the traditional wound dressing Figure 10d ; Axcelon Dermacare Inc, Figure BC-based wound dressing.

Reproduced with permission from Axcelon Dermacare Inc The photographs from left to right are the initiated donor site, and 2, 7, and 12 days after treatment. Except commercialized wound dressing, BC also exhibits great potential in other biomedical application areas Picheth et al. In the further, they aim to use BC as a fundamental material in pharmaceuticals to improve the functions of drug delivery.

Axcelon Dermacare Inc. BC has also been studied a lot for the fabrication of vascular grafts Pacheco et al. Its excellent wet mechanical strength and high biocompatibility make it an ideal candidate for vascular grafts. Jenpolymer Materials Ltd. Other companies like Innovatec and Axcelon Dermacare Inc. BC has also been commercially exploited as a raw material source for plant-free rayon and fabric Huang et al.

The heavy use of petroleum-based chemical fibers such as nylon, acrylon, terylene, and polypropylene has caused severe environment pollution problems due to their non-degradable nature Wei and Zimmermann, Plant-based regenerated fibers such as rayon, cuprammonuium are generally derived from wood and cotton pulps.

Although they are degradable, the pulping process generally consumes large amount of energy and causes environmental pollution as tremendous chemicals are used. Nanollose Ltd. In comparison with plant cellulose, BC is easy to be purified, thus reducing the environment impacts.

They have successfully converted BC into viscose-rayon fibers, providing an alternative for plant-based fibers Nanollose Ltd, In , Nanollose has collaborated with PT Supra Natami Utama, an Indonesian company, to develop a commercial scale factory to produce textile grade BC via fermentation by using coconut water Nanollose Ltd, Nanollose transforms BC into viscose-rayon fiber, Nullarbor TM fiber by using their own developed technique, which is further spun into yarn, fabric, and a garment Figure 11 ; Nanollose Ltd, The future market of Nullarbor TM fibers can be expanded in all the application areas of traditional rayon including shirts, sports, dresses, athleisure, and home furnishings Nanollose Ltd, They denote that their plant-free viscose rayon fibers have a series of advantages in several aspects compared with plant-based fibers.

In cellulose source, they use industrial wastes instead of wood pulp harvested via harsh chemical process. The fermentation process is also more efficient than plant growth in both time and land requirements. Finally, the process to produce rayon from BC fermentation is of low-energy and low-water exhausting. Taken together, it should be a promising direction for BC application that provides a sustainable alternative for plant-based rayon fibers. Nanollose produced sustainable and tree-free viscose-rayon fiber, Nullarbor TM fiber a , yarn b , and garment c.

Reproduced with permission from Nanollose Ltd During the fermentation process, polymers can be added into the culture media to produce BC with different physiochemical properties Chen et al. For plant cellulose, obtaining cellulose nanofibers with different chemical and physical properties is majorly via chemical modification, which is generally a cumbersome and complicated process Thomas et al.

It is indicated that the additives such as CMC and xyloglucan not only disturb the crystal structures and aggregation of BC, but also influence on their surface chemistry and solubility Hirai et al. This provides a route to produce BC with diverse properties. The average diameter size of these modified fibers is ranged from 20 to 50 nm, which is obviously smaller than that the native BC Tajima et al.

In comparison, HP-BC is amphipathic, and thus can be dispersed in both water and organic solvents Tajima et al. The commercial case suggests that BC can be prepared into diverse types by adding polymers, nanoparticles, and other components during fermentation, and subsequently the raw materials with different physiochemical properties can be further exploited for a boarder range of applications.

Polymer-modified BC and their applications in composite resins. Reproduced with permission from Kusano Sakko Inc and Tajima et al. In summary, BC is bacteria-secreted bottom-up cellulose nanofibers with high purity and high crystallinity. The synthesis efficiency of BC at a high yield is comparable to that of plant cellulose via photosynthesis procedure, and the land required for the fermentation is also small than that for plant growth.

Additionally, the agricultural and industrial wastes are used as nutrient sources for the fermentation, which not only reduces the cost but also alleviates the improper discard of the waste-induced environment pollutions. Structurally, BC has a unique structure with 3D reticulated network, and it is uncharged, which endows it more specific advantages such as outstanding mechanical properties, high water holding capability, excellent gas permeability, great suspension stability, low viscosity, and excellent tolerance to acid, salt and ethanol.

It is also renewable, biocompatible and biodegradable. Moreover, BC with different morphologies and physiochemical properties can be produced by easily adding polymers, nanoparticles and other components in the culture media. Therefore, BC is a sustainable and highly competitive alternative to plant-based cellulose nanofibers.

To date, BC has been industrially produced via both static and agitated fermentations. The commercial applications of BC have spread to diverse areas including foods, personal care products, household chemicals, biomedical areas, textiles and composite materials. In the future, BC will be applied in more and more areas. On the other hand, there are also several issues need improvement for industrial production and application development of BC.

The static fermentation requires more labor and time, thus resulting in limited production capability. The production efficiency can be improved via several ways including isolation of high yield of BC-producing strains, development of new culture media and fermentation reactors, and utilization of automated equipment.

The agitated fermentation can produce BC at large scale, but the non-cellulose mutation of bacteria reduces the yield of BC. Therefore, the production efficiency and the yield of BC are always needed to be improved. The cost of BC is higher than that of plant-derived cellulose nanofibers, and the industrial waste such as coconut water becomes inadequate and expensive along with the increase of marketing requirements.

Therefore, new cost-effective nutrient sources such as beet molasses, liquid fermentation wastewater, and fruit juices can also be exploited for BC production. The current applications of BC are still limited. More efforts should be devoted into the exploitation of new usages of BC. The products under development announced by these companies should be well-developed. The industrial process of plant-based cellulose nanofibers is speeded up. There will be a competing relationship between BC and plant-based cellulose nanofibers in certain areas.

Therefore, making good use of the advantages of BC will allow to maintain its competitiveness in the commercial market. Abeer, M. A review of bacterial cellulose-based drug delivery systems: their biochemistry, current approaches and future prospects.

Abitbol, T. Nanocellulose, a tiny fiber with huge applications. Almeida, I. Bacterial cellulose membranes as drug delivery systems: an in vivo skin compatibility study. Amnuaikit, T. Effects of a cellulose mask synthesized by a bacterium on facial skin characteristics and user satisfaction.

Devices 4, 77— Anderson, J. Health benefits of dietary fiber. Andrade, F. Studies on the hemocompatibility of bacterial cellulose. A 98, — Andriani, D. The optimization of bacterial cellulose production and its applications: a review. Cellulose 27, — Anton-Sales, I.

Opportunities of bacterial cellulose to treat epithelial tissues. Drug Targets 20, — Arena, M. Degradation of poly lactic acid and nanocomposites by Bacillus licheniformis. Axcelon Dermacare Inc Google Scholar. Aydin, Y. Isolation and characterization of an efficient bacterial cellulose producer strain in agitated culture: Gluconacetobacter hansenii P2A.

Azeredo, H. Bacterial cellulose as a raw material for food and food packaging applications. Food Syst. Azizi Samir, M. Review of recent research into cellulosic whiskers, their properties and their application in nanocomposite field. Biomacromolecules 6, — Bianchet, R.

Applicability of bacterial cellulose in cosmetics-bibliometric review. Brown, A. Buldum, G. Recombinant biosynthesis of bacterial cellulose in genetically modified Escherichia coli. Bioprocess Biosyst. Cao, Y. Production of bacterial cellulose from byproduct of citrus juice processing citrus pulp by Gluconacetobacter hansenii. Cellulose 25, — Carvalho, T. Latest advances on bacterial cellulose-based materials for wound healing, delivery systems, and tissue engineering. Chantereau, G. Bacterial nanocellulose membranes loaded with vitamin B-based ionic liquids for dermal care applications.

Chao, Y. Bacterial cellulose production under oxygen-enriched air at different fructose concentrations in a liter, internal-loop airlift reactor. Chen, G. Scale-up of production of bacterial nanocellulose using submerged cultivation.

Chen, H. In situ modification of bacterial cellulose nanostructure by adding CMC during the growth of Gluconacetobacter xylinus. Cellulose 18, — Chen, W. Nanocellulose: a promising nanomaterial for advanced electrochemical energy storage. Cheng, K. Effect of different additives on bacterial cellulose production by Acetobacter xylinum and analysis of material property. Cellulose 16, — Choi, S. The nanofication and functionalization of bacterial cellulose and its applications.

Nanomaterials Coelho, F. Toxicity of therapeutic contact lenses based on bacterial cellulose with coatings to provide transparency. Lens Anterior Eye 42, — CPKelco Inc Curvello, R. Engineering nanocellulose hydrogels for biomedical applications. Colloid Interface Sci. Czaja, W. The future prospects of microbial cellulose in biomedical applications.

Biomacromolecules 8, 1— Dourado, F. Gama, F. Dourado, and S. Bielecki Amsterdam: Elsevier , — Drahushuk, A. Modulation of cytochrome P by 5,5'-bis-trifluoromethyl-2,2'-dichlorobiphenyl, a unique environmental contaminant. Toxicology , — Fontana, J. Grumezescu and A. Holban Amsterdam: Elsevier , — Gao, M. A natural in situ fabrication method of functional bacterial cellulose using a microorganism.

Gatenholm, P. Bacterial nanocellulose as a renewable material for biomedical applications. MRS Bull. Gorgieva, S. Bacterial cellulose as a versatile platform for research and development of biomedical materials. Processes Bacterial cellulose: production, modification and perspectives in biomedical applications. Hainan Yeguo Foods Co Ltd Hestrin, S. Synthesis of cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum.

Preparation of freeze-dried cells capable of polymerizing glucose to cellulose. Hirai, A. In situ crystallization of bacterial cellulose III. Influences of different polymeric additives on the formation of microfibrils as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Cellulose 5, — Hori, R. The thermal expansion of wood cellulose crystals. Cellulose 12, — Huang, Y. Recent advances in bacterial cellulose.

Cellulose 21, 1—

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