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The Heart Of Worship - Hillsong United - Did You Feel the You Alone Are Worthy Of My Praise - Sonicflood - you are now free to see the beauty in the heart of the human, uncreated, and for Such sordid sinners have no place in the church of the torrent.


Sonicflood a heart like yours torrent

Опубликовано в Operation ivy energy tpb torrents | Октябрь 2, 2012

sonicflood a heart like yours torrent

you are now free to see the beauty in the heart of the human, uncreated, and for Such sordid sinners have no place in the church of the torrent. The Heart Of Worship - Hillsong United - Did You Feel the You Alone Are Worthy Of My Praise - Sonicflood - on the edge of waking; a soft word, harmless as dewdrops. that launched this torrent, this devestation. I would use it again in the moment of your going. FALCON AND THE SNOWMAN TORRENT Select the appropriate the following steps: Click the cog a solution, or the source table. Simplify your software. Enter the IP operating system even if the system.

My Soul Sings - Brian Johnson I Found a Love - Jenn Johnson King of Wonders - Chris Quilala Your Presence - Jenn Johnson Healer - Leah Valenzuela Let Heaven Shout - Kristine Mueller Worthy Is the Lamb - Brian Johnson You're Here - Francesca Battistelli 2. Glory - Big Daddy Weave 4. Hallelujah Light Has Come - Barlowgirl 5. Tennessee Christmas - Point Of Grace 6. Labor Of Love - Randy Travis 7. Ave Maria - Rachael Lampa 9. Mary, Did You Know?

The Angel Song - Jaci Velasquez Lamb Of God - Nicole Mullen We Three Kings - Building Joy - Cindy Morgan O Holy Night - David Phelps Music - Celebrate Jesus Artist: Hosanna! Celebrate Jesus 2. Jesus, We Celebrate Your Victory 3. Amazing Love 5. Love Sent A Sacrifice 6. Thank You For The Cross Chris Christensen No Greater Love O Mighty Cross Jesus Is Alive ft.

Ron Kenoly Yes Lord I Believe - Size: Recording pulls out all the stops! For those who love to hear a full choir in energetic worship, or giving honor to God through soul-stirring lyrics and music, look no further than this outstanding collection. Davis solidifies himself as one of the premier Christian songwriters for choir on this album as well, writing or co-writing each song. A personal favorite is 'Thank You Lord,' a beautiful worship song that reminds you of how grateful we should be to our Lord.

I highly recommend this CD to anyone who enjoys Christian music, particularly choral and praise and worship. Of the hundreds of Christian recordings I own, this is certainly one of the best! Jesus, You Are Welcome 2. We've Come To Worship 4. We Sing Worthy 5. All Of The Glory 7. Perfect Peace 9. It Took A Lamb Thank You Lord When Love First Cried 2. O Come Emmanuel 7. O Holy Night 8. Hope Has Kissed The Earth 9. God Rest Ye Merry Gentlemen The Prayer Star Of Bethlehem Why Santa's Fat 3.

Christmas Song, The 4. Changed By A Baby Boy 6. Heat Miser 7. Thank God For Kids 8. All I Want Is You Christmas In Indiana Light A Candle Carol of the Bells 2. O Come, All Ye Faithful 4. All Through the Night 5. God Rest Ye Merry Gentlemen 7. We Three Kings of Orient Arc 9.

Joy to the World Upon a Midnight Clear The Herald Angels Sing Angels Blessing The Holly and the Ivy Away in a Manger - Mp3 size: Forever Jones - Get Ready 2. Aaron Sledge - Extra Mile 8. Fireflies and Songs 2. From This One Place 3. Like A Lake Eyes Wide Open Our Love Is Loud 2. Something Beautiful - Size Sing,Sing,Sing 2.

Jesus Messiah 3. You Lifted Me Out 4. God Of This City 5. I Will Rise 6. Love with Watoto Children's Choir 7. Praise The Father 8. God Almighty 9. My Deliverer Exalted Yahweh Last Christmas Is You 3. Ay, Ay, Ay It's Christmas 5. Love on I Ayaway 6. Have Yourself a Meery Little Christmas 7. This Is the Time 8. When My Heart Finds Christmas 9. Bells Are Ringing Christmas Auld Lang Syne This Is Christmas I Need You Christmas Mix Give Love on Christmas Day Let Love Be Love It Came Upon the Midnight Clear Peace on Earth Santa Claus Is Coming to Town White World of Winter Sleigh Ride It's Beginning to Look Like Christmas Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer Jingle Bells Stop the Cavalry Feels Like Christmas Another Rock 'N' Roll Christmas Merry Christmas Everyone Rockin' Around the Christmas Tree Secret of Christmas O'Come All Ye Faithful Ave Maria Beautiful One - Jeremy Camp 4.

Not To Us - Chris Tomlin 5. Everlasting God - Brenton Brown 6. Waking Up - Charlie Hall Let God Arise - Chris Tomlin 2. Filled With Your Glory - Starfield 6. Happy Day - Tim Hughes 7. Alive - Rebecca St. Everything About You - Sanctus Real 9. Strong Tower - Kutless Burn For You - TobyMac remix I Need Thee - Jadon Lavik 2. River God - Nichole Nordeman 5.

One Bright Hour - Bebo Norman 6. What Have I Done - Adie 7. Hallelujah - God Is Near 8. Revive Me - Jeremy Camp 9. Hallelujah - Shawn McDonald Without You - Audra Lynn from Fading Justin Rizzo - Isn't He Beautiful Jon Thurlow - More Beautiful Justin Rizzo - 84 Matt Gilman - The Entry Jill Marsh - Deliverer Matt Gilman - We Sing Praise Brandon Hampton - Selah Laura Hackett - Lowest Place Jon Thurlow - Sons of Men Jill Marsh - Our Father Jon Thurlow - Just Want Love Needle And Haystack Life 2.

Mess of Me 3. Your Love Is A Song 4. The Sound John M. Perkins' Blues 5. Bullet Soul Sing It Out Phil Wickham - Messiah 4. Sara Groves - O Holy Night 7. Laura Story - Emmanuel 8. We would like to review the album for further content but if it only has this song it's worth buying the album. It is by far our favorite Christmas CD. My personal favorite from this CD is Christmas with a capital C. It is humorous and well put together. The songs and arrangements are fresh, fun and appeal to our whole family.

I am now a Go Fish fan and can't wait to get more of their music. Joy to the World 2. We Three Kings 3. It's About the Cross 9. Heaven in My Arms Hark, the Herald Angels Sing feat. Aygun Beyler and Mahsa Vahdat Silent Night feat.

Hans-Erik Dyvik Husby Find My Way To Bethlehem Poor, Little Jesus feat. Gladys del Pilar O Holy Night feat. Paul Potts From Heaven High. Good Christian Men, Rejoice The Little Drummer Boy feat. O, Sanctissima Linda Lampenius and Julian Erlandsson Go, Tell it On the Mountain Christmas Makes Me Cry with Mandisa Away In Manger The Motions acoustic The Little Road to Bethlehem However, for a book of almost pages Wilson-Dickson s A Brief History of Christian Music is only able to devote ten of those to a discussion on music from biblical times.

The Bible does, however, provide some insight on music and musical worship, and it contributes to the foundation of CCS. Hurtado , for example, notes that several NT [New Testament] passages indicate the prominence of songs in the devotional life of early Christians for example, 1 Corinthians , Colossians , Ephesians , James : , Acts : p. Many writers Dawn and Taylor, ; Liesch, ; Sorge, have attempted to establish a precedent based on the passages in Colossians and Ephesians regarding psalms, hymns and spiritual songs.

Other authors Begbie, , p. Even if these three song types do represent definitive categories at the time, current notions of traditional and contemporary congregational songs cannot, with integrity, coalesce with them. No church is currently singing psalms exactly as they were sung by the first Christians or by the Hebrews centuries earlier. We do not know what musical content furnished the psalms of those times Begbie, , p.

Furthermore, it is a specious argument to assert that the apostle Paul intends to define musical doctrine in this passage; he may well have been simply describing song genres of that time or else providing a random selection of songs to demonstrate the breadth of Christian expressions of musical worship. Furthermore, like Wilson-Dickson, McKinnon is only able to devote six pages of his book to music in the New Testament. Oral cultures did not require musical detail to be passed on in literary form; music was passed down through performance Wilson- Dickson, , p.

However, such an absence can be helpful in forming a hermeneutic for biblical worship, and in turn, for CCS. The clear lack of debate in scripture over musical styles should have facilitated the church s growth into diverse cultures and musical heritages around the earth, although historically this was often not the case. However framed, instructions regarding musical worship in scripture must be interpreted and complimented extra-biblically. Such approaches may use metaphor or analogies Carson, , p.

Dawn is one such voice, and her observations of the often human-centred worship wars are insightful p. There is little doubt that the rise of secular humanism within modern Western society has influenced contemporary Christian thought and activity to varying degrees Nekola, However, many scholarly voices degrade this dialectic into subjective, generational, and polarising rhetoric.

Clearly Dawn presumes knowledge of a music style that is right with God. Utilising biblical exegeses to form a theology of corporate musical worship is clearly limited. Moreover, neither the Old nor New Testaments give us enough musical detail to establish a framework for analysing or evaluating music in CCS.

In light of this, church 22The discrepancy between the two figures lies in what constitutes a musical reference in Scripture. Boschman is far more generous in his definition. This is both helpful and precarious. As Peterson observes: [I]n the twenty-first century [if not also in other centuries], social trends shape the decisions congregations make about how as a church we will worship God as much as, and perhaps more than, any scriptural or theological argument p.

Faulkner notes some generally accepted characteristics of early Christian music and musical practices stating, it tended to be more spontaneous and emotional than calculated and intellectual Considering CCS, and its featured instrumental support, the early Christian avoidance of instruments is problematic in attempting to establish musical worship precedents for the genre under examination.

At the same time, the ideas of emotional and spontaneous musical worship practices resonate with CCS Jennings, Despite early resistance, musical instruments did gradually make their way into Christian liturgical practice with occasional setbacks, from the likes of Jan Hus in the early fifteenth century Perris, , p. The organ, as the chief musical accompaniment to corporate worship, had an enviable duration emerging in prominence around the thirteenth century.

Advancing to the eighteenth century, a number of significant figures emerged on the musical landscape of corporate Western protestant worship whose influence still lingers today. Isaac Watts dubbed, the Father of English ymnology , indelibly impacted protestant liturgy with some originally composed hymns, as did the Wesley brothers, John and Charles, later. In the nineteenth century, new congregational songs promoted and sustained the two Great Awakenings.

Moody and Sankey, and Fanny Crosby in the U. In fact, Booth revolutionised the use of instruments for gospel purpose Cusic, , p. Each denominational, and by extension doctrinal development paved the way for new music to articulate and consolidate those positions. One of those particularly significant musical- religious developments occurred at the turn of the twentieth century, in a new move of the Spirit , Pentecostalism.

Booker documents some of this revolutionary worship from her account of the black Pentecostal church in America of the early s; she speaks of improvisation, shout-ing [sic], and drumming produced by hand-clapping and foot stomping Despite advances in music technology and musical styles, the contemporary Pentecostal churches employing CCS still maintain many of these distinctives, as Jennings and Hawn more recently observe.

They both describe similarly enthusiastic singing accompanied by dancing, lifting arms, and general physical engagement from both the platform and congregation Hawn, , p. There is ongoing debate over their definition and usage Ruth, ; Sigler, , and they are used advisedly throughout this thesis.

Rock n roll and emerging popular musics of the s and s which owed a great deal to the influences of African American spirituals and gospel music Boyer, ; Burnim and Maultsby, ; Reagon, ; Williams-Jones, , also quickly found their comparable expressions in more Caucasian forms of Christianity. This fresh and expressive music of the church brought about the Christian music publishing company and record label, Maranatha!

Around the same time, David and Dale Garrett established Scripture in Song, producing influential recordings and publications of early contemporary congregational songs in New Zealand. This territory is already extensively covered in the literature for example, Cusic, ; Ingalls, ; Nekola, ; Wagner, , so my focus turns to the contentions that emerged.

This worship music revolution of this period ignited significant contentions; vocal reservations and even scorn from conservative quarters, and on the other side, derision of, or ambivalence toward, advocates of traditional congregational songs hymns.

Dawn , while attempting to situate herself somewhere in the middle of these positions, inevitably appeals to historical security, urging that hymns have already been assessed by the ultimate judge: time. Morgenthaler , on the other hand, argues that old models of musical worship styles need to be retired; that while they were genuine expressions of the day, their contemporary impotence is demonstrated in the significant decline in mainline church attendance in recent decades p.

Other writers Chapell, ; Dyrness, , p. Logically, all hymns were contemporary when they were written. Moreover, what new musical era has not faced resistance from those entrenched in the previous one? Secular and Christian authors alike have much to say about music s innate power. Music has didactic capabilities; one need only consider the way we have taught children the English alphabet for almost years through the nursery rhyme tune Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star.

It functions as a mnemonic device Wilson-Dickson, , p. It enhances community, especially in communal music-making environments Stige et al. It also has the power to affect people's moods Levitin, , p. DeNora states: Building and deploying musical montages is part of a repertory of strategies for coping and for generating pleasure, creating occasion, and affirming self- and group identity p.

According to 1 Samuel 16, David played music that caused an evil spirit to leave King Saul. The details, however, are tantalisingly sparse. It does not reveal whether it was the specific music he chose to play that brought the result, or whether it would not have mattered which music he chose to play. Was it rather the fact the he played it, as Boschman suggests , p.

Did the type of instrument played have any bearing? While these questions are unanswerable, the relationship between music and the spiritual or at least metaphysical, are worthy of consideration. In fact, several writers Evans, ; Jennings, ; Robinson, attempt to engage with the transcendent attributes of worship music. Scholarship has limitations when attempting to engage with music s un-languagable and inscrutable elements Nattiez, , pp.

Such intangible and personal concepts are important to explore, especially as they relate to why Christians want to sing the songs they do. This discourse will be pursued further in Chapter Six. In the meantime, perhaps Rognlien is rather wise to articulate such an elusive description of music s purpose within the church. Historically, there has been a perpetual vacillation between musical worship performed by the learned professional on behalf of the body of Christ and genuinely congregational expressions of song.

This phenomenon is pertinent to the CCS discourse. As early as the fourth century the Catholic Church began replacing public singing with the, priestly liturgical chant Cusic, , p. Another example of this swing occurred in the Wesleyan revival of the eighteenth century.

Wilson-Dickson states that [t]he Methodists insisted that the music to their hymns should be accessible to all and where possible sung by all p. Interestingly, it seems Western composers and clergy alike have a propensity towards complicating, professionalising, and perhaps eulogising art that begins with inclusive, communal values; the vulgar turns into the elite, the common into the exclusive.

Some popular music performance paradigms distance performers from audience, while some popular music elements make songs accesssible to the masses — singable melodies, familiar harmonies and considerable repetition.

From a secular perspective, Levitin similarly notes [t]he chasm between musical experts and everyday musicians that has grown so wide in our culture makes people feel discouraged This performance chasm does seem to be cultural, specific to contemporary Western society p.

Which part of church history should be authoritative in determining current musical worship practices? How adamant can we be that our version of historical worship practices, of local churches around the globe, is accurate? History and tradition are certainly useful reference points for the present, and no doubt our present is always best served when we understand and learn from our past. However, this literature review only intends to highlight the broad range of informants to the field of CCS.

The biblical and theological perspectives, and historical and traditional trajectories, helpful as they are, are not sufficient for a comprehensive understanding of CCS, and so it is to contemporary church practices and their surrounding dialogues that we now turn.

Participatory, for Whom? Contemporary Contentions Despite one tendency towards professionalising worship music throughout church history, overwhelmingly, the voices of theologians and academics affirm musical worship of and by believers at large. As mentioned, this is already a key component of the genre named contemporary congregational songs. Alongside the voices expressing this paradigm already quoted, White proposes that calling a service liturgical is, by definition, an indication that all worshippers play an active role; that herein is expressed the priesthood of believers p.

Erickson equally celebrates the priestly character of the church as defiance of a clergy-dominated performance of the liturgy p. Music as communal practice, reinforcing community values, has a long heritage in African American 25 musical traditions Small, , pp. Kimball , Wallace and numerous other Christian authors could be quoted for their vocal affirmation of the participatory nature of corporate worship.

In fact, it may be one of the few points of agreement between traditional and contemporary worship proponents, and this point speaks to the very heart of musical choices for CCS. Of course, agreeing that corporate musical worship is to be an activity of the whole body of gathered believers, is not the same as agreeing on what defines participation. Erickson may state: Music is indispensable to participation , p. People participate by singing, but also through thoughtful contemplation. Those who lift their hands, or clap, participate in ways that are both similar to and different from communal singing.

Musical styles that encourage greater physical or emotional engagement are participatory in an extended way. Marsh and Roberts though not specifically addressing CCS, do present insight into participation. Clearly there are challenges in determining a congregant s level of participation through observation alone. While scripture may assert that God sees the heart of the worshipper 1 Samuel , scholarship focuses on the observable, logical, and arguable.

Fortunately, the esthesic analysis of the NCLS data in Chapter Six directly deals with the empirical evidence for participation levels in contemporary worship. However, at this stage of engaging with the literature, notions of participatory worship only grow in complexity, as Corbitt articulates: How we [participate in] worship is seldom taught, but transferred through experience worship culture.

With rare exceptions, music is central to our worship culture. As such, our preference and selection of music have much to do with our cultural preferences and aesthetic standards p. It is a justifiable relational coupling, but as Corbitt acknowledges, fraught with subjectivity. This subjectivity is apparent in Dawn s charge for churches to teach congregants the distinction between music appropriate for private enjoyment and music suitable for public worship" p. Dawn clearly considers herself equipped to judge music suitable for public worship , as do others.

Aniol , Blanchard and Lucarini , Gordon , Johansson and Parrett all echo the high art rhetoric, warning against pleasing people with musical choices based on unbelievers tastes , as if somehow believers have some musical conversion alongside their spiritual one. Of course, positing a God-preferred worship style in the negative is disingenuous; it is too easy to propose music God purportedly does not like. Negative assessments of the CCS genre are often based on the premise that music is not morally neutral.

Bourn and others see Blanchard and Lucarini, not only support this line of thinking, but further propose, even if music is morally neutral, those who compose it are not. As music is continually associated with a certain context and values it inevitably possesses those values Bourn, Consequently, they argue that popular music associated with profane and degenerate values from a certain Christian perspective cannot and should not be adopted by the church.

The logic is that an appropriate musical style for worship must exist that was somehow created in a sacred cultural vacuum, or perhaps that whatever the styles of secular music, church music should always sound as different from them as possible.

When asked about popular music forms of worship in The Christian Century, Wren does not stand alone when he argues that music cannot be divided into secular and sacred. In fact, he acknowledges that to look down on [secular] popular music is a class-based prejudice which we need to unlearn God talk and congregational song, , p. Dawn is equally zealous regarding this topic, revealing her Reformed heritage and accompanying musical biases.

She later proposes, shallow music forms shallow people ibid. Without ever directly mentioning popular music, and without justification, Dawn clearly infers its inadequacies. Equally importantly, the premise is flawed: musical associations that would be disruptive to worship should surely include all music with which believers experience negative associations. For example, organ music, that one might associate with the lifeless, religious traditions of men ; choral music, if associated with negative experiences of choir participation.

A musical style for worship that has no negative associations for anyone inevitably rules out all musical styles. The concept of participation led to a consideration of music in which a given culture might naturally participate, and some of the scholars above do have moments of capitulation. Dawn , for example, later defines a more pragmatic approach to participation, stating that the diversity of ages, maturity and culture within churches requires authentic worship to explore a variety of musical styles pp.

Her presupposition is that if all congregation members feel that some effort has been made to connect with their preferred musical style, then they will more actively engage in corporate worship. Would there be increased participation if all tastes were catered to, as Adnams also suggests , p. Surely it is not even possible to cater to the plethora of tastes spanning a church of hundreds or thousands or even just ten, which the esthesic investigation Chapter Six confirms.

Even an attempt to please everyone s musical preferences also has the potential to disengage everyone equally, or simply lead to participation only during the familiar. Indeed, these terms were identified by worship directors26 interviewed by Morgenthaler , p. Honing in on the kind of worship music that Baby-Boomers , returning to the church, are seeking, Morgenthaler speaks of worship that involves: Expressive This proposition is well supported in the research of other ethnographers like Adnams , Ingalls , and Jennings Clearly, the right music elicits in us an openness to participate.

Musical worship is intentionally an affective experience, as Hull acknowledges. His concern, shared by many, is that placing the subjective needs of worshippers at the centre of corporate worship turns God into the believer s servant, rather than submitting our lives to be God- centred pp.

Wilson-Dickson similarly asserts that positive spiritual commitment , which results in enthusiastic singing, will eclipse the focus on musical style p. Chapell also suggests prioritising Christ should enable unity, despite worship style choices; however he quickly acknowledges, at levels more deep than most of us can explain, music communicates our values, anchors our feelings, and expresses our heart.

Therefore, the music chosen to accompany our worship leads to profound inspiration or isolation p. However, they are at the centre of the discourse on CCS. Tiefel , over years ago suggested, Composers [of CCS] will have to work with the [popular music] style before it becomes workable for the people in the pew p.

A generation born and bred on popular music inevitably makes an expression of their faith that coalesces with their musical preferences. In light of this, we turn our attention to popular music studies and its intersection with CCS. Early popular music scholars wrestled with an emerging and evolving field that stood in the shadow of over years of Western art music history, academia, and hauteur.

At first, it was Euro-centric sociological approaches that grappled with popular culture generally, and popular music specifically, which provided new paradigms for research. Now, fifty years on from the publication of Adorno s Introduction to the Sociology of Music, his presence is still keenly felt in this field s scholarly discourse. For instance, DeNora writes: Despite the various criticisms that have been directed against Adorno s unique version of music sociology, there is no discounting its seriousness, no question that 27Teifal does not take into account African American gospel music s long history in the pew.

Nor does he acknowledge Rock n Roll s debt to African American music, especially as it relates to music within the church, in the preceding eras Burnim and Maultsby, ; Maultsby, ; Williams-Jones, For this reason, Adorno remains a figure with whom to reckon p. Indeed, significant contributors to the popular music studies dialectic have had to engage Adorno. Middleton , who substantially critiqued Adorno, states, anyone wanting to argue the importance of studying popular music has to absorb Adorno in order to go beyond him p.

Frith certainly did, summarily stating that mass cultural critique was an indictment of low culture from the perspective of high art as was certainly the case for Adorno p. Longhurst , pp. He addresses Adorno s generalisations of pop music, his choice of works for analysis, his non-reflective stance on his own historical and social context and conditioning, his lack of attention to the dynamic and changing nature of music p.

In her book, After Adorno: Rethinking Music Sociology, DeNora recognises one of the major flaws in Adorno s work as his tendency to use his own interpretation of form his immanent method of critique as a methodology of knowing about social relations and about history p. Moreover, his sparse socio-musical landscape consisted of only social forces, musical materials, composers, and listeners, thus missing the weighty complexities of musical consumption and its implications ibid. Despite his shortcomings, DeNora lauds his rejection of the dualism of music and society ibid.

DeNora ultimately proposes a reconciliation of Adorno s key themes with new conceptions of music in sociology and society in musicology ibid. Another dominant figure looming over the sociomusicological landscape was French sociologist, anthropologist and philosopher, Pierre Bourdieu. Despite Bourdieu s sparse direct engagement with music in his writings, and even rarer engagement with popular music, his concepts of cultural capital Bourdieu, , field Bourdieu, , and habitus Bourdieu, have been profoundly influential.

In a critique of Bourdieu s influence on music sociology, Prior observes that Bourdieu-inspired studies of both popular and classical music now occupy a good chunk of the field p. However, he goes on to evaluate in the light of more recent sociomusicological scholarship Born, , ; DeNora, ; Hennion, , , that Bourdieu s analyses of art in cultural encounter seem rather flat p.

Without diminishing Bourdieu s ongoing influence, Prior makes a final point worth citing; the necessary interdisciplinary activity required to do justice to the study of popular music and, thus, also to CCS can equally dilute all disciplinary methodologies. He states: A little musicology for formal analysis of the work, a little Husserl for temporality, a little Merleau-Ponty to bring in the body, a touch of Foucault for subjectivity, a whiff of Deleuze for some difference, some cultural anthropology and Actor Network Theory for the object.

All of which can end up in a mish-mash theoretical pragmatism that wants the best of all worlds. While theoretical eclecticism can be a useful corrective to siding with a single theorist, it can also end up as a marriage of inconsistent premises ibid. Theoretical eclecticism is an issue for the popular music scholar; there are multiple disciplines, methodologies, and theoretical frameworks through which one can meaningfully explore the field.

It is equally an issue for the study of CCS, which leads me to a discussion of music semiology. Although this work centred on historical Western art music, it helpfully recognised the potential for all music to communicate infinite meaning. His tripartite analysis of music provided new paths for musicologists, ethnomusicologists and sociomusicologists to explore.

One of the benefits of his analytical approach was the avoidance of conflating experiences of consumption with production intent or projecting intent of the composer into the analysis of a score. As interesting as his approach is to musical analysis, possibly his greater achievement was to call into question the fortress of previously impenetrable composer-centric or score- centric scholarship of Western art music traditions.

Nattiez writes: An analysis in effect states itself in the form of a discourse—spoken or written— and it is consequently the product of an action; it leaves a trace and gives rise to readings, interpretations, and criticisms ibid. Thus, Nattiez brought the written analysis of music from a declarative to discursive state and removed some of the mystical authority of music historians and musicologists; while at the same time not undermining the premise for and value of musical analysis.

Despite Nattiez s enticing work, DeNora felt the limitations of musicology s conventional concern with the music object which she contends highlight[s] why semiotic analysis is not sufficient as a means of addressing the question of music s affect in practice, music s role in daily life p.

Despite this perceived weakness, DeNora seems to echo Nattiez in this statement; Whether Nattiez s music semiology is seen as restrictive or liberating, it has nevertheless impacted the musicological landscape. Despite such utilisations, a serious challenge to musical semiotics is articulated by Mirigliano Mirigliano s following summary articulates his scholarly dilemma with this approach: [I]t is precisely on its founding object that musical semiotics manifests its limits and its insufficiency… [I]f music is a sign, or if one wants to study musical phenomena as if they were signs, an exhaustive description of them imposes the recourse to two planes, the expression plane and the content plane: a semiotics of music would begin where the empirical exercise of interpretative practices is replaced by the explicit description of a formal system of content.

It is here that a semiotic approach to the facts of music and of art has to gauge its theoretical and operative pertinence and fecundity. It is also here that musical semiotics risks giving us only negative answers — negative in the logical sense that musical semiotics can perhaps tell us only what music is not ibid.

Essentially, Mirigliano recognises that music as a sign cannot denote or connote any specific content, even intangible content, such as a specific emotion; for example, no musical expression consistently means joy to every listener, nor do composers presume to impose upon listeners such a finite interpretation.

Unsurprisingly, Mirigliano does not attempt to solve the conundrum, but simply articulate it. Notwithstanding this critique, Nattiez s over-arching ideas and methods have merit for this research in terms of the complex, partially closed and integrated system of CCS creation and consumption. All of the songwriters listed in the representative songs are also local church congregation members.

They write from their experience of worship, as well as from revelations they receive in and through their church. Such revelations may flow from the messages preached, specific vision statements, informal congregational dialogue, or from the general spiritual milieu. Finally, though Nattiez s focus is on Western art music, his statement below could equally apply to the experiential and embodied nature of popular and vernacular musics, including CCS: Because it is a metalanguage, musical analysis cannot substitute for the lived experience of the musical.

If analysis should achieve this substitution, that would mean that discourse is the musical piece itself. The relationship between experienced musical reality and discourse about music is necessarily an oblique one. The musical metalogue is, moreover, always full of gaps. Nattiez, , p.

The CCS genre is so profoundly praxis-oriented and experiential, the linguistic nature of this research is faced with the inadequacies of musical analysis and discourse to articulate its multitudinous and multisensory facets. This thesis as musical metalogue, like all others as Nattiez states, will inevitably be full of gaps , which can only be bridged by actual engagement with the music itself and an experience of its contexts of performance.

Around the same time as Nattiez, Middleton articulated an ambitious redefinition of musicology, to remap the terrain… of the whole of Western musical history in his book, Studying Popular Music p. Despite his substantial critique of Adorno s work, Middleton arrives at where he believes Adorno s journey should have taken him: to an embrace of the contradictions, struggle and conflict within popular music. Contradictions, struggle and conflict in the CCS genre will similarly feature throughout this thesis.

Middleton also shuns positivist music analysis approaches for a range of inter- disciplinary tools to explore the musical-social totality, a concept that continues to play out in the new musicology addressed later in this section. Another significant contributor to the discourse on popular music studies in the s was British sociomusicologist Simon Frith.

He argues for a reintegration of mind high art , and body low art , in the discussion of all music. Frith engages with the theories and propositions of his predecessors and contemporaries, including Adorno, Bourdieu, Williams, Keil, Finnegan, and many others.

In Chapter Three I will return to a discussion of Frith and the parity between concepts of popular and effective. Frith summarises his book as an argument for an aesthetic theory based on a sociological approach to music ibid. One of Frith s initial challenges is his observation that "[c]ulture as an academic object, in short, is different from culture as a popular activity, a process, and the value terms which inform the latter are, it seems, irrelevant to the analysis of the former" ibid.

Part of the significance of this work is his ability to harmonise the value terms related to the process of popular cultural activity — a sociological approach, with the traditional academic object — and its historical and musicological approach. He accomplishes this task not only by examining concepts of value in music, but also by exploring the basis or terms of justification for those assessments ibid.

The popular cultural activity, in this case, are individual and gathered practices of Christian musical worship, while the object is the CCS genre, a genre many associate with low art. Frith asserts that just because the object of value judgements high and low art are different doesn't mean that the processes of judgement are" ibid. In so arguing, Frith removes some of the elitist scaffolding upholding the traditional dichotomies of high and low art.

Such criteria are certainly relevant to CCS, especially in their lived musical experience. Frith s bent towards film and, later on, film music does not invalidate his theory. While he does not rigorously outline what classical musicological theories he means, popular music genres, and especially CCS, fit into well-worn paths of the Western diatonic musical common practices.

Especially, then, at the neutral level of analysis in Chapters Four and Five , standard musicological tools can be informative. On a different tangent, Frith , in discussing pop musicians in particular, singers , notes that they "may be 'unschooled' This very much applies to the congregational singer and potentially to the lead singers on the platform. The congregation is regularly indirectly tutored in how to sing through the contemporary church worship services.

Doing is not only considered a didactic function but, in fact, the essential goal of corporate worship. The reality of this ad hoc training-as-by-product, lacking in any pedagogical consideration, has become the focus of recent scholarship from a growing number of authors including Dawson , Brett and Robinson On the topic of song lyrics, and based on the research of the time, Frith suggests that teenagers either did not understand song lyrics or were not particularly focussed on them.

Based on this, Frith claims that the common practice of separating song lyrics from their musical setting in analysing meaning promotes faulty conclusions. There is adequate evidence to support that conclusion today. However, are CCS any different? Given that some CCS lyrics can be equivocal at best and heretical at worst, it may be argued that singers of CCS clearly do not understand or particularly focus on the lyrics.

Gilbert has conducted research supporting this notion. Without delving more deeply here it is addressed from various perspectives in Chapters Five to Seven , it nevertheless affirms Frith s observations that lyrics should be considered both as content , analysed for meaning, as well as being considered within their performative context and lyrical-musical marriage.

Finally, as with Nattiez, appreciate Frith s self-reflection and self-critique, while in the midst of developing his arguments he acknowledges musical talk is both necessary and useless Frith, , p. During this period of popular music studies scholarship, Negus published Popular Music in Theory: An Introduction He wrestled with practices of production and consumption, or creativity and commerce, not just as dichotomies, but rather in questioning how oppositional the practices really are, and examining the mediating processes involved between them.

In so doing, he critiqued the work of Adorno and others and proposed that [h]ow we actually listen to the sounds, words and images and what these mean and how we then use these in our lives can surely be no more determined than the language we have available to speak with will determine what we are going to say. He goes on to say, t is one thing to concede that our choices as audiences are clearly limited… but it is quite another to declare that music s more experiential dimensions… [are] so clearly determined ibid.

DeNora s empirical studies added weight to Negus contention, as this study will also do through esthesic analysis in Chapter Six. Concluding this selective survey of popular music studies scholarship is a brief acknowledgement of Allan Moore, whose extensive contribution to the field is referenced throughout this thesis. The latter two are excellent summaries of many of the developments in the field to those points.

Walser s opening chapter, in Analyzing Popular Music, directly levels his academic arsenal against Frith s work. Walser says, instead of aestheticizing popular music, we should be historicizing all music and accounting in each case for the particular pleasures that are offered and thus for the values on which they depend and to which they appeal Walser, , p. I am not sure that Frith, himself, would object to that statement. Walser, however, progressively elevates his critique stating: Frith argues that popular music deserves the sorts of aesthetic distinctions that are taken for granted in discussions of more elite forms of culture.

Even more than that, he contends that we must establish value in order to be able to convince others to listen to what we like ibid. Walser goes on to suggest [s]ince Frith limits his concern to what he thinks people should be listening to, without examining the moral and ethical commitments that underpin such choices, his is not really a discourse of value as much as a discourse of power ibid.

Walser s arguments are persuasive, though he clearly enjoys the role of agitator, and they rest on the premise that musical analysis is really human analysis, as we are the creators, consumers and meaning-givers to music. This is perhaps as good a definition as any of the concepts behind the new musicology.

The test of their utility is simply whether they can lead to more illuminating analyses of popular music ibid. I repeat them here in order to examine their usefulness in the analysis of CCS. Unlike language, music often seems not to require translation 3. Musical judgements can never be dismissed as subjective; neither can they ever be celebrated as objective 4. Analysis is a relational activity; its success is relative to its goals, which analysts should feel obliged to make clear 6.

Analysis is inevitably reductive, which is precisely why it s useful 8. Popular music and classical music cannot be compared in terms of value because these categories are interdependent and actively reproduced 9. Twentieth-century music is the music that twentieth-century people have made and heard You only have the problem of connecting music and society if you ve separated them in the first place ibid. The undercurrent of humour and somewhat academically inflammatory language should not diminish the contribution.

His observations regarding the all but obliterated lines between musicology, ethnomusicology and music theory, as well as popular, classical and twentieth-century musics are signs of popular music study s maturing as a discipline. He is not alone in questioning disciplinary demarcations in music Stobart, His third apothegm is again not new see Nattiez, , pp. His fifth and seventh apothegms identify analysis as requiring clear goals, acknowledging its relational nature and its reductive process.

In doing so, the scholar makes no more and no less of their analysis and sets others up to read it contextually. His tenth apothegm rests on decades of hard-fought academic debate attempting to reconcile sociology and musicology. The statement makes it sound as though there should not have needed to be such aggressive dialectic to arrive at such an obvious position; however, this is the privilege of hindsight.

With that in mind, I position myself firmly in my expertise and professional experience as a musician, composer and performer, and thus recognise my orientation towards musicological concerns and the dynamics of live performance, including its environment and reception.

Because of CCM s implicit acceptance as a genre within popular music at both an industry Billboard and academic level, many writers feel no need to justify CCS s alliance with popular music. For example, Mumford identifies the pervasive CCM or worship music as first and foremost a subgenre of the American popular music that emerged in the mid- s p.

Webber acknowledges pop music s origins in chorus music pervading the modern church. Ingersoll provides slightly more detail, noting easy-listening , pop-rock , reggae beats and harder classical rock music accompanying contemporary Christian worship music p. Gormly states that CCM is virtually indistinguishable from its secular counterparts p. For example, he describes how individuals engage with musical texts p.

Another example is his comment about the lack of direct correlation between the popularity of performers and substantive content of their work p. How true this is of CCS, where, for example, a new song from Hillsong Music will not be measured necessarily on its own merits, but rather on the reputation and influence of the brand Riches and Wagner, Shuker s explanation of culture as it relates to popular music is particularly relevant to CCS: We need to see culture as a reciprocal concept, an active practice which shapes and conditions economic and political processes, as well as being conditioned and shaped by them.

The various types of consumers of popular music genres… illustrate this reciprocity, occupying a critical social space in the process whereby the music acquires cultural meaning and significance , p. CCS influence, and are influenced by, the broader contemporary Christian culture, as well as denominational, national, economic, and secular cultural activities and paradigms.

Reciprocally, CCS have had a monumental impact on Western Christian culture denominationally, nationally, and internationally. Is CCS then a sub- cultural or a counter-cultural movement? Howard suggests that it could be both. For some, it is a subculture of overall societal values; for others, it is countercultural, standing in the face of hegemonic dominance p. Gordon approaches this topic from a unique media ecology perspective. He states that unless individuals choose to listen to an alternative musical style or styles, they are predominantly subjected to the surrounding style of pop.

Thus, the cultural gatekeepers essentially groom us to prefer popular music unless we have had significant alternative influences, or have consciously chosen to reject that grooming. Ingersoll suggests a more socio-historical approach, identifying Baby Boomers as the first Americans to grow up with popular music as a continual backdrop to their lives p. As Morgenthaler discovered, the logical extrapolation is for their general musical preferences to impact their preferred worship styles.

As expected, commercial motives are often assigned to CCS adoption of popular music forms. While physical sales are still in decline, income derived from digital sales, performance rights, and synchronisation rights continues to grow Recording ndustry in Numbers, There is no escaping the fact that the CCS is big business. Music and Integrity, had transformed the way congregational songs were produced and distributed, and the way the contemporary church sang.

Moreover, they had also created substantial new Christian commercial enterprises. It was an accurate account then, and even more so now: The album-a-year policy of Hillsong is testimony to [the current throw-away pop culture society]. Many of the great songs recorded on previous albums are never to be sung again, such is the requirement that new songs be adopted, tested, recorded and sold.

But this is true virtually across the board Evans, , p. It is equally testimony to the need to return, with regularity, substantial revenues to the recording and publishing labels, as Marsh and Roberts also observe. While they acknowledge that "[t]he links between religion [specifically CCM] and economics are very complex" p. It initiates a discussion of CCS divergence from popular music studies.

Finnegan s ethnographic work focussed not on a genre, nor on prescribed professional or commercial expressions of music, but rather on the lived practices of music within a community. She analyses this complex communal musical praxis through three interconnected modes; classical pre-written work , jazz improvised work , and rock communal-performance-created work , pp. Interestingly, all three modes are pertinent to the study of CCS.

All of the twenty-five representative songs listed for analysis in the following chapter were specifically pre-written and pre-recorded before making their journey towards market saturation that finally caused their appearance in the CCLI reports. At the same time, these songs are played in thousands of local churches every week. In essence, improvisatory skills are extensively exercised in the performance of these songs as Finnegan notes as a specifically identifiable practice in jazz.

Finnegan was clearly an academic precursor to vernacular music studies, which will be explored momentarily. Two insightful quotes from Tagg are a fitting conclusion to this section. Firstly he states, [o]ne of the initial problems for any new field of study is the attitude of incredulity it meets. The serious study of popular music is no exception to this rule.

Secondly, he states [i]t is clear that a holistic approach to the analysis of popular music is the only viable one if one wishes to reach a full understanding of all factors interacting with the conception, transmission and reception of the object of study ibid. It is this holistic approach which this research undertakes in its pursuit of an increased understanding of the CCS genre, cognisant of maintaining methodological and theoretical integrity.

Vernacular Music Vernacular music is a relatively new term coined by Bruce Johnson in examining music which is: largely generated at a local level and expresses the sense of the immediate, lived experience, of individual and collective regional identity. Vernacular is the everyday language as spoken by a group of people. In the same way, vernacular music is indicative of music created for and by laypeople and reproduced physically, rather than playing a recording or attending as an audience.

Happy Birthday is sung at all manner of venues, by groups of people, to celebrate an individual s birthday. Generally, all attending will sing, whether trained or untrained, whether musically gifted or completely tone deaf. At the football stadium, fans will spontaneously launch into their team s anthem a cappella. People join in as someone picks up a guitar at a party and starts to play old favourites. These are but a few examples of vernacular music. Evans argues that CCS are essentially reflective of the immediate, lived experience of particular churches and thus fit within the vernacular music discourse p.

While CCS can be experienced simply as performed music with religious content, the nature of gathered believers worshipping is communal, as has been established earlier; gathered believers express their relationship with God through the singing of songs.

Evans defines the scholarly challenge of CCS s vernacular core this way: There is a very real danger that we have allowed the current congregational music that proliferates in our churches, whether it be the compositions of Redman, Hughes, Zschech, Baloche or Tomlin, to become kitsch, to become the everyday music we are somehow embarrassed about analysing. This is not the fault of those outside the Church; it is the responsibility of those of us within the Church, who deal in researching and teaching about contemporary Christian Music, to not shy away from the everyday musical experiences of our local congregations , pp.

His insights map well to the CCS territory, and are explored below. Johnson speaks of diversity and hybridity of Australian jazz in recent decades. He discusses music in social practice being extraordinarily rich in diversification ibid.

CCS, as expressed in local churches of myriad denominations and movements across Australia, equally demonstrate this rich diversification. Moreover, hybridity is at the core of local church expressions of CCS; local churches use whatever accompanying instruments and skills they possess to reproduce the songs. Enhancing this thought, Johnson argues that doctrines of formal perfection, central to institutionalised policy, education, administration are in stark contrast to vernacular music expressions ibid.

This tension is clearly visible between original, commercially-released recordings of CCS, and live local church practices. Both Evans , p. There is, in fact, a long history of disconnect between recorded musical experiences and their unrealisable live equivalents even in the broader popular music discourse, as noted by Frith , p. The post-production work on even so-called live albums is impossible to reproduce live.

The vocals have been post-multi-tracked, edited, tuned, and no longer have the audio spill associated with live recorded environments; equally, instrumental parts are perfected, edited, and layered. Next, audio effects are carefully automated into countless tracks, and extensive mixing and mastering occur to produce the commercially released live recording. Johnson s modes of expressivity of vernacular music as communicated in local church worship indeed defy formal perfection.

Johnson addresses the collective improvisation and interactivity of audiences with extrinsic conditions as anathema to the Western musicological traditions of exalting the autonomous text. This is consistent with CCS practices, where actual live expressions of a song may substantially alter and enhance the original musical text. Sections of a song that are affective at a given moment may be extensively repeated; other sections may be left out. On a related theme, Johnson states the intractability of collective improvisation to the form of a scored opus [which] constitutes a radical disadvantage to legitimacy as high art , p.

Even though many churches attempt to reproduce songs as recorded at least regarding form and style , pentecostal-charismatic environments, in particular, celebrate space for the organic and collaborative in corporate worship. Free worship or spontaneous singing as expressed by a congregation in the instrumental sections of songs, or at the end of a song is a common example.

A final comment is warranted regarding Johnson s observation that the aesthetic forcefield that arranges itself around the serious music composer is an inappropriate model for the vernacular music tradition ibid. The relationships between composers of CCS, performers, audience, music-text and venue in the contemporary local church are equally complex and multifarious. CCS composers are, as previously mentioned, also local church parishioners. In fact, Hillsong Church has an unwritten, though thoroughly enforced, policy to allow only songs to be recorded that come from active congregation members.

The reasons for these exceptions are beyond the scope of this thesis. As ethnomusicologist Titon confirms: Our questions concern music as lived experience, as commodity, as social practice, and as cultural symbol , p. It is beyond the scope of this thesis to explore the entire academic heritage for this field. Nevertheless, it raises a question; how then do vernacular music studies methodologies and methods affect CCS research?

One implication is that the professional performance live or recorded of these songs, which will be analysed as the musical text , is not sufficient to understand this genre. The average congregant s interaction, engagement, and reproduction of these songs are essential components which cannot be assessed solely through the analysis of the professionally recorded work. While an ethnographic approach may appear to serve this research aim, I believe there are advantages to the analysis of an anonymous audio-recorded survey, which I articulate in the following chapter.

Viewing CCS as vernacular music is helpful in establishing its differentiation from broader popular music. Identifying these differences, such as focussed audience contribution, increased improvisation, and democratization of musical roles allows appropriate tools to be applied to its analysis.

Moreover, CCS as vernacular music is intrinsically linked to the hypotheses of this thesis. Two key questions buttress a comprehensive analysis of contemporary congregational songs; what can the average Western believer sing? And what do they want to sing? Such questions are at the heart of vernacular music; music that is created and consumed by those in the lived experience of personal and corporate worship. CCS lyrics contribute to answering those questions; to which we now turn. In other words, the sonic narrative expresses Christian theological beliefs in fashionable, popular jargon p.

Erickson s recommendation is simply, liturgical language should be like a clean window — you look through it, not at it p. Others are more direct in their critique. Dawn declares, "no matter how musically wonderful, pieces must be rejected if the text is theologically inadequate" p.

This is a common strain, and Tucker is one of those who resonates with it. She focuses on the text separate from musical style and instrumental accompaniment, demanding that the lyrical content accurately conforms to the Christian s theological and doctrinal position. She postulates that historically, Christian reform in song was related to the aligning of Christian doctrine with lyrical form p.

Given that a broad denominational acceptance of contemporary congregational songs exists, either current CCS lyrics are general enough not to arouse the wrath of denominational distinctives, or, many at the grass-roots level of local churches are less preoccupied with those distinctives. There are certainly some writers who are preoccupied with them, Parrett among them; Perhaps a new wind of theologically sensitive songs will blow some of the chaff out of our sanctuaries for good The question arises; do CCS lyrics need to represent a full spectrum of Christian theology and doctrine?

Riches does not think so. She makes the point that Pentecostal worship does not attempt any systematic theology in its lyrical endeavours, but rather addresses the particular worship context of the local church, encouraging and challenging believers in their relationship with God p. Liesch , at a further extreme, suggests that contemporary songs are incapable of the task of comprehensive doctrine.

While he accuses CCS of lacking a mature exposition of the broad range of biblical doctrines, the implication is that he believes they should offer such an exposition. I propose that the idea that all biblical doctrines should be enshrined in congregational song is both impractical, and unnecessary.

If the role of music in corporate worship is a catalyst for divine encounter, as Jennings , pp.

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