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A cominciare da Mingus del e dalla collaborazione appunto con Charles Mingus. Nei Novanta, con l'eccezione parziale di Turbolent Indigo del , la sua vena poetica sembra ormai inaridita e anche nel suo recente Travelogue, nonostante i tentativi di evoluzione, i ricordi personali cantati non sono sempre efficaci. Semplice per un "Download Consapevole ed Informato"e.. Your gift to world culture and Joni's work will entertain and teach many who might not be able to buy.

Your writing is informative and intelligent. In America, PBS showed it. Also on DVD. It sparked and courted my interest to find more. I did that here, and much more you and others have posted as Official Discography. Please mentally overlook the GoogleTranslate often "his" for "her" Fine writing and sincere criticism still shines through.

And google translate speaks Italian better than I do. It is in fact a genre that does not have precise formal characteristics. It is not so much the arrangement that must be driving but the text. Lucid and original ability to analyze, as well as poetic propensity to translate one's feelings into verse are the characteristics that any singer-songwriter must possess.

The first songwriters arrive in the sixties but all influenced or overshadowed by the cumbersome personality of Bob Dylan. Only at the beginning of the Seventies did this school branch out. Certainly, however, compared to Dylan's social and committed folk songwriter, the themes become more intimate and personal. That is Joni Mitchell, destined to become one of the most important and influential singer-songwriters in the history of rock.

Despite the fact that since childhood she demonstrated great technical skills in playing the piano, ukelele and guitar, this is not the reason that prompted her to compose first poems. As Mitchell recalled, it was only overcoming polio, which hit her hard at the age of nine, that made her develop a profound artistic sensibility.

To better define this artistic inclination, thought a teacher of his at the middle school, Mr. Kratzman, who helped him both in painting and in poetry. After high school she enrolled for only one year at Alberta College of Art in Calgary, but quickly realized that the his passion for painting, poetry and music was such that it had to be freely expressed. He then began performing around Canada in various live music clubs and small music festivals including the prestigious Mariposa one.

Her residence had meanwhile become Toronto and her husband the musician Chuck Mitchell, of whom she became pregnant with a child. In serious economic hardship, however, they decided to give the baby up for adoption one year after birth. The marriage between the two also lasted only one year.

Mitchell then moved to New York where she met Elliot Roberts, who will become her manager, but also ex-Byrds David Crosby, to whom she presented her songs. He followed them to California, the new frontier of the folksinger scene. The aforementioned "Both Sides Now", plus other songs sung by others in the meantime such as "Circle Game" and "Urge for Going" were in the meantime set aside to present new material, being then fished out in the following two works.

The orchestral arrangements are abandoned in favor of only the use of the guitar, which makes the verses stand out more, always deep and delicate. But the singing is also striking, marked by a crystalline and refined contralto. The publication of the second work Clouds increased its popularity, so much so that "The Voice" Frank Sinatra immediately interpreted his "Both Sides Now" and was invited to the Festival of Woodstock, who however deserted, on the advice of his manager Roberts.

In exchange, however, he recorded the famous "Woodstock" which was then inserted both in the soundtrack of the documentary film and in his third work of Ladies Of The Canyon. The positive responses from audiences and critics were immediate for this concept album focused on the theme of existential inadequacy and restlessness, treated with a typically feminine sensitivity.

Autobiographical, ironic and melancholy lines mark "Morning Morgantown" and "Conversation", while sadness, combined with a light of hope, pervades "Rainy Night House". Thanks to songs like these, Mitchell will become the representative of a "confessional folk" characterized by intense and sincere lyrics and an unprecedented and original frankness, directing the modern language of popular music towards new horizons.

Ladies Of The Canyon however revealed the Canadian singer-songwriter's great compositional skill, as well as a handful of pleasant and catchy melodies, now also accompanied on the piano. And even his vocal technique - played on the contrast between high and deeper tones, made hoarse by the habit of smoking that began at nine years immediately after the period in hospital for polio - was of great emotional grip on the listener.

The first of his classics is Blue from The leitmotif is the same as that of Ladies of The Canyon: the malaise that winds through everyday life, but with less picturesque, sunny and ironic tones. On the other hand, the analysis of personal events is accentuated, which also lead to harsh admissions of guilt.

As in "River", where he recalls the story of the adoption of his daughter, or in the love that is no more of "Last Time I Saw Richard", unlike the little significant personal memories of "Ladies". But what is striking is his romantic attitude in the pursuit of happiness, which is however impossible. The result is the perennial melancholy, Blue in fact. His personal stories become a universal and never rhetorical feeling. All filtered by a typically feminine sensitivity. That's why in "This Flight Tonight", "A Case Of You" and in the title-track, Mitchell seems to affirm that unhappiness is not only the result of the individual condition, but also of the obstacles placed in the way of the people who meet in their path.

A journey metaphorically represented as a journey. In Africa for the song "Carey", and in California. For the lucid analysis of pain, for that very elegant folk-pop, a close relative of rhythm'n'blues, and for the disarming sincerity, Blue's Mitchell is very reminiscent of Billie Holiday.

Napunite zemlju! Na to one nemaju pravo. On je kod toga prisutan. To je njihov put k Bogu. Pred Bogom su oboje vezani, dok ih smrt ne rastavi. Bez mene njega ne bi bilo. Bio je gospodar nad sobom i gospodar cijele prirode. Kako moram biti zahvalan svome ocu! Zato i zovu godine od Zbog toga si zbunjen i zabrinut. To su hormoni. Nikad se nemoj spolnim organima nepotrebno igrati. To je grijeh homoseksualnosti. Ne treba se uznemiravati. Pomisli samo na nagon za slobodom,.

Biolog Hermann Muckermann usporedio je tjelesni nagon sa snagom vodene bujice. Ako budno na nju pazimo i steknemo nad njom vlast, onda je dobra, onda nam koristi. Sigurno si vidio branu kakve hidrocentrale, barem na slici ili u filmu. Divlji potok valja se nizbrdo, nosi kamenje, dere obale, no brana ga zaustavlja, on se smiri u velikom bistrom jezeru koje je nastalo iza brane. Tako je i sa spolnim nagonom. To se zove samozadovoljenje, masturbacija ili svojevoljna polucija.

Nemoj se nikada predati takvoj nasladi i rasipati sile koje tvoje tijelo treba za svoj razvitak. Ako se potpuno preda toj zloj navici, vjera mu brzo postaje teretom jer ga opominje. Tome su dva razloga:. K tome znaj da napast po sebi nije grijeh. Nema grijeha bez pristanka! Zato ti savjetujem:. Prvo, napast odbij! Kojim putem treba krenuti?

On mora postati tvoj veliki Prijatelj. Moli se redovito Njemu, svom najboljem Prijatelju. Govorili su joj iskreno, kako im je srce kazivalo. Ja to zapravo nisam htio«. Nemoj se bojati, da se taj grijeh na tebi »vidi«. Da, na to te posebno upozoravam. Ima takvih patnika i oko tebe, ima ih posvuda. Daj mi snage da budem uvijek pobjednik! Kad si ti bio u neprilici, on ti je pomogao.

U tom ste prijateljstvu obojica bili veseli i sretni. To je prva proljetna lasta. Odgojiti ih da postanu ljudi korisni svima i Bogu. Nema ljudskog djela, koje bi se moglo s tim usporediti. Ona se mora razviti, dozreti, a za to treba godina. Isto je u ljubavi. Spremam se za ozbiljniju i sretniju ljubav. Ispitaj se, da li je tu doista progovorilo srce, a ne samo tjelesna strast, koju nisi znao svladati? Osobito neka pazi da bude dostojan i vrijedan djevojke koju potajno ljubi. Ipak izbjegava izjave ljubavi, svaku dublju povezanost.

Evo, to je. Nisam mogao vjerovati. Promotrimo dalje. Budi oprezan! Na primjer, nagon za hranom. Koliko trikova da potaknu ljude na jelo, iako nisu gladni! Dnevni obrok plitke bludnosti! Evo nekoliko savjeta:.

Svaka djevojka ima na to pravo. Budi prema njoj fin, dobar, obziran. Brani nju od nje same! Ljubav u ljudskom srcu nije neiscrpiva. Tako je i s ljubavlju! Ti budi pametniji. A za sada se moram baviti drugim stvarima. Najprije pravu nakanu.

I sad je on slab, ali se bori i ima dobru volju. Smatram da je to smrtni grijeh. Molim Te, Isuse Kriste, mnogo mladih pozovi u njihove redove. Daj im snagu, da nadvladaju sve zamke, svoju slabost i zlobu ljudi. Budi iskren samom sebi i izbjegavaj opasnosti! Za nekoga je to slika, knjiga, za drugoga film, zabava, ples ove ili one vrste itd. Ako je tako, izbjegavaj takve zgode!

Crkva vas gleda s povjerenjem i ljubavlju! Clemente Pereira S. Without proof, Malagrida was declared guilty of high treason, but, being a priest, he could not be executed without the consent of the Inquisition. The accusation of heresy is based on two visionary treatises which he is said to have written while in prison. His authorship of these treatises has never been proved, and they contain such ridiculous statements that, if he wrote them, he must previously have lost his reason in the horrors of his two and a half years' imprisonment.

That he was not guilty of any conspiracy against the king is admitted even by the enemies of the Jesuits. Ott, Michael. New York: Robert Appleton Company, A Jesuit missionary to Brazil, b. He entered the Jesuit order at Genoa in Thence he proceeded to Brazil, where for twenty-eight years he underwent numerous hardships in the Christianization of the natives.

In he was sent to Lisbon, where he was received with great honours by the aged King John V. In he returned to Brazil, but was recalled to Lisbon in upon the request of the queen dowager, Marianna of Austria, mother of Joseph, who had succeeded to the throne upon the death of his father, John V. The great influence which he exerted at the Court of Lisbon was a thorn in the side of Pombal, the prime minister. By intrigues and calumnies he induced the young king, Joseph I, to banish Malagrida to Setubal November, and to remove all the Jesuits from the Court.

An attempt upon the life of the royal chamberlain, Teixeira, during which the king was accidentally wounded, was amplified by Pombal into a conspiracy headed by Malagrida and other Jesuits. A monument in his honour was erected in in the parochial church of Menaggio. About this page APA citation. Ott, M. Gabriel Malagrida.

In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. MLA citation. Advertisement - Continue Reading Below Transcription. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Charles W. Ecclesiastical approbation. Nihil Obstat.

October 1, Remy Lafort, Censor. Farley, Archbishop of New York. Contact information. The editor of New Advent is Kevin Knight. My email address is webmaster at newadvent. Regrettably, I can't reply to every letter, but I greatly appreciate your feedback — especially notifications about typographical errors and inappropriate ads. Dedicated to the Immaculate Heart of Mary. Statue of Pombal with lion, Lisbon The Marquis of Pombal is known as one of Portugal's greatest ever statesmen and politicians.

In Pombal was appointed Portuguese ambassador to Great Britain and later served as his country's ambassador to Austria. Pombal brought in a number of free-market reforms on the English model and abolished slavery in Portugal and its Indian colonies.

A rigorous and hard-working reformer, Pombal's reforms affected every strata of Portuguese society and economy. He passed laws to define wine quality and production, expelled the Catholic Jesuit order in , attempted to improve the administration of Portugal's Brazilian colonies, reformed education, rationalized the taxation system and tried to set up a manufacturing base in the country.

Pombal's power and influence increased to that of a quasi-dictator after the Lisbon earthquake. As a result of his new wide-sweeping authority Pombal made many enemies among Portugal's land-owning and reactionary aristocracy, who considered him a social upstart. Appointed Marquis of Pombal in , he ruled with an iron fist until Joseph's death in The mentally-ill Queen Maria I assumed the throne of Portugal on the death of her father and immediately moved to destroy the powers of Pombal, a man she intensely disliked.

After the achievements of Pombal's autocratic but reforming rule, Portugal was soon to be plunged into the horrors of the Napoleonic Wars during Maria's reign. Pombal retired to his palace at Oeiras, and estates in Pombal, near Leiria, dying in The Marquis of Pombal. He used his powers to introduce much-needed reforms. Little is known of Pombal's childhood. He derived from a rural family of the lower nobility and probably received a good education. He served in the cavalry for a while and eventually went to Lisbon, where, after working in the Academy of History, he eloped with a niece of the powerful Count of Arcoa.

This marriage opened many doors for Pombal. From to he was ambassador to London, in which post he came to understand and to resent his country's economic subservience to England. Soon after his return to Portugal in , Pombal's wife died. In he was sent as his government's representative to Vienna, where he married again. Upon his return to Lisbon in , Pombal was named junior minister in the government of King John V.

Not long after Pombal's appointment, John V died and was succeeded by his son, the indolent and pleasure-seeking Joseph I reigned Pombal quickly consolidated his position within the government, and by the end of , after his energetic handling of the great crisis produced by the Lisbon earthquake, he was virtual dictator of Portugal, taking complete control of the machinery of government. In his early years in power Pombal faced strong opposition both from the great noble families, which had formerly dominated the government, and from the powerful Jesuit order, whose power and influence Pombal sought to curb.

On Sept. Pombal grabbed the occasion, resolutely implicating both the high nobility and the Jesuits in the plot. In January some of the highest nobles of the land were publicly executed. Later that year the Jesuit order was expelled from Portugal forever. Secure in power, Pombal now concentrated on his goals of strengthening the Portuguese economy and of curbing British economic preeminence in Portugal and its colonies.

A series of administrative reforms brought Portugal and Brazil under greater central surveillance, and a series of important economic and financial reforms followed. Pombal reformed the University of Coimbra and set up a board of censorship to control education.

He organized the state-run Company for Trade with Asia and, in , the Grao-Para Company, the first of three companies intended to monopolize trade with Brazil. Pombal also reorganized the Brazilian mines, regulated the trade in tobacco and sugar, and in took over the Brazilian diamond trade for the state. Many of Pombal's schemes were successful; others died at birth.

Although he did a great deal for Portugal, he failed to put an end to its commercial subservience to England and to the generally bad economic situation in both Portugal and Brazil. The closing years of the reign of Joseph I saw no relief from financial difficulties. King Joseph I died in January They could not tolerate the dictatorial rule of Pombal.

In March Pombal was dismissed, and a new ministry was chosen from the nobility. The fallen dictator first retired to his palace at Oiras. His enemies, however, had him banished to the town of Pombal. Various charges were brought against him, and he was found guilty at his trial in August However, Pombal, now ill and 82 years old, received a pardon. He died on May 8, A scholarly account of the political, economic, and social condition of Portugal in Pombal's lifetime is in H.

Livermore, A New History of Portugal He led the Minas Gerais conspiracy in favor of Brazilian independence and was executed by the Portuguese. From his ascension to the throne in until his death fourteen years later, John II's royal treasury financed numerous expeditions that mapped out the African coast. Convinced that India lay on the other side of Africa, he even sent explorers overland. To the Portuguese, he was a much loved regent who curbed the power of the nobles, maintained peace with Spain, and became a great patron of Renaissance art.

She was placed on a chair, and her eyes being bound, the executioner struck her head off without the previous utterance by her of any complaint. After her came the twenty-one-year-old son, Joseph Maria de Tavora. They bound him on a cross raised aloft, broke his arms and legs with iron clubs, and then strangled him with a rope. Their corpses were all flattened upon wheels, which were placed on poles, and this proceeding took up so much time that fully half an hour elapsed before another execution could be proceeded with.

This stone marker was placed on the site of the razed palace of Jose Mascarenhas, the Duke of Aveiro. Seems someone got the idea that the Tavoras tried to kill and more problematically, failed to kill Portuguese king Joseph I. Others argue the gunmen might have just been common highwaymen who had no idea they were setting upon the royal person. A monumental plinth surmounted by Pombal dominates the present-day Lisbon plaza named for him. On this day.. Tags: s, , anton alvarez fereira, belem, blasius joseph romeiro, christopher hervey, duke of aveiro, elenora de tavora, emanuel alvarez fereira, francis d'assis de tavora, guarani war, january 13, jeronimo de ataide, jesuits, joseph i, joseph maria de tavora, lisbon, lisbon earthquake, luiz bernard de tavora, marchioness of tavora, maria i, marquis de pombal, national emergencies, regicide, salting the earth, sebastiao jose de carvalho de melo, st.

But this? On the say so of one man venerated with his statue on a column in Lisbon and still allowed??? This wholesale torture and execution of all of one family just beggars belief even if they were guilty. The baying crowds are also very much guilty.

Nothing whatsoever to be proud of Portugal, hang your collective heads in shame at your history here. Reply Jacques Brasseul says: 20 May, at pm The text above, description of the execution, who is it from? I would like very much to know the author, the source. Could you send it to me? Thank you, Jacques. Reply Sarrazolla says: 13 March, at pm This was my family!

Not all their close relatives were executed, my ancestors were exiled to Macau instead of being executed with the rest of their family. I have been told this story ever since I was a child, but only recently have I learned the name of the main family involved in the event. We still hold they were wrongly accused. But, as someone said earlier, only God knows for sure. In he assumed the name Fernandes. He became Capt. Please tell me more. I am presumed a relative. Keep your nose clean. The whole thing stinks of a man hell bent and hell bound?

Reply Virgil says: 12 November, at am Fantastic account of the execution if it is all factual. I find this barbarity abhorrent and disgraceful. Spain should of intervened with France to stop this shameful injustice. Reply S. Reply merl says: 10 September, at pm Why did the most guilty receive the easiest death? For the same reason women convicted of treason and several other crimes in England were burned alive as hanging drawing and quartering would have required parts of their bodies to be exposed and presumably excite lust amongst the audience.

To me the most bizarre and horrible thing is that the very worst death was reserved not to the Duke or the Count or the Marchioness or the Colonel but to a valet who was presumably the most junior member of the whole conspiracy. Rosen says: 25 October, at am Because she was an old woman. Her husband was also killed more quickly. Reply Pingback: ExecutedToday. Pridobljeno V vinogradih so bili slapov in vodovodi. Pombal je mirno umrl na svojem posestvu Pombal leta Na trgu je tudi impozanten markizov kip, ki prikazuje leva.

She was a devout woman and was influenced by the Jesuits, and upon her ascension to the throne, she did what she had long vowed to do: she withdrew all his political offices. She also issued one of history's first restraining orders , commanding that Pombal not be closer than 20 miles to her presence. If she were to travel near his estates, he was compelled to remove himself from his house to fulfill the royal decree.

The slightest reference in her hearing to Pombal is said to have induced fits of rage in the Queen. Pombal built a palace in Oeiras, designed by Carlos Mardel. The palace featured formal French gardens enlivened with traditional Portuguese glazed tile walls. There were waterfalls and waterworks set within vineyards. Pombal died peacefully on his estate at Pombal in There is an imposing statue of the Marquis depicting a lion next to him in the square as well.

Marquis de Pombal Please help support the mission of New Advent and get the full contents of this website as an instant download. The son of a country gentleman of modest means, b. He was said to have been educated at the University of Coimbra and served for a time in the army. Pombal then retired to a country estate near Soure, and in his thirty-ninth year received his first public appointment, being sent as minister to London in In he was transferred to Vienna, where his work was to effect a reconciliation between the pope and the empress; there in the same year he married as his second wife the daughter of Field Marshal Daun, a union brought about by the influence of John V's Austrian wife, who befriended him more than once, though the king disliked him and recalled him in The distinguished diplomat, D.

Luiz da Cunha, had recommended Pombal to Joseph when the latter was only prince, but it was the faovur of the queen-mother and perhaps also of a Jesuit, Father Moreira, that secured him the coveted post. His superior intelligence and masterful will enabled him in a short time to dominate his colleagues, who were dismissed or made insignificant, and with the acquiescence of his royal master he became the first power in the State. Some years later the English ambassador said of him, "with all his faults, he is the sole man in this kingdom capable of being at the head of affairs".

His energy after the earthquake, 1 Nov. The mysterious attempt, 3 Sept. He magnified an act of private vengeance on the part of the Duke of Aveiro into a widespread conspiracy, and after a trial which was a mockery, the duke, members of the Tavora family and their servants were publicly put to death with horrible cruelties at Belem, 13 Jan.

If true, this explains in part the leniency shown him after his fall by Joseph's daughter and successor, Queen Maria. The so-called Pombaline terror dates from these executions. The people were effectively cowed when they saw that perpetual imprisonment, exile, and death rewarded the enemies or even the critics of the dictator.

He was bound to come into conflict with the Jesuits, who exercised no small influence at Court and in the country. They appear to have blocked his projects to marry the heiress presumptive to the Protestant Duke of Cumberland and to grant privileges to the Jews in return for aid in rebuilding Lisbon, but the first open dispute arose over the execution of the Treaty of Limits 13 Jan. When the Indians declined to leave their houses in compliance with its provisions and had to be coerced, Pombal attributed their refusal to Jesuit machinations.

Various other difficulties of the Government were laid to their charge and by the cumulative effect of these accusations, the minister prepared king and public for a campaign against the Society in which he was inspired by the Jansenist and Regalist ideas then current in Europe. He had begun his open attack by having the Jesuit confessors dismissed from Court, 20 Sept. On 19 Jan. The previous year he had obtained from Benedict XIV the appointment of a creature of his, Cardinal Saldanha, as visitor, with power to reform the Society, but events proved that his real intention was to end it.

Still not content with his victory, he determined to humiliate it in the person of a conspicuous member, and himself denounced Father Gabriel Malagrida to the Inquisition for crimes against the Faith. He caused the old missionary, who had lost his wits through suffering, to be strangled and then burnt. He entered into negotiations with the Courts of Spain, France, and Naples to win from the pope by joint action the suppression of the Society, and having no success with Clement XIII, he expelled the Nuncio 17 June, , and broke off relations with Rome.

The bishops were compelled to exercise functions reserved to the Holy See and the Portuguese Church came to have Pombal as its effective head. In Clement XIV, to prevent a schism, yielded to the pressure brought to bear on him and suppressed the Society. As soon as he was sure of success, Pombal made peace with Rome and in June, , admitted a nuncio, but the ecclesiastical system of Portugal remained henceforth a sort of disguised Anglicanism, and many of the evils from which the Church now suffers are a legacy from him.

In the political sphere Pombal's administration was marked by boldness of conception and tenacity of purpose. It differed from the preceding in these particulars: 1 he levelled all classes before the royal authority; 2 he imposed absolute obedience to the law, which was largely decided by himself, because the Cortes had long ceased to meet; 3 he transformed the Inquisition into a mere department of the State.

In the economic sphere, impressed by British commercial supremacy, he sought and with success to improve the material condition of Portugal. Nearly all the privileged companies and monopolies he founded ended in financial failure and helped the few rather than the many, yet when the populace of Operto rose in protest against the Alto Douro Wine Company, they were punished with ruthless severity, as was the fishing village of Trafaria, which was burnt by the minister's orders when it sheltered some unwilling recruits.

His methods were the same with all classes. Justice went by the board in face of the reason of state; nevertheless he corrected many abuses in the administration. His activity penetrated every department. His most notable legislative work included the abolition of Indian slavery and of the odious distinction between old and new Christians, a radical reorganization of the finances, the reform of the University of Coimbra, the army and navy, and the foundation of the College of Nobles, the School of Commerce, and the Royal Press.

He started various manufactures to render Portugal less dependent on Great Britain and his Chartered Companies had the same object, but he maintained the old political alliance between the two nations, though he took a bolder attitude than previous ministers had dared to do, both as regards England and other countries, and left a full treasury when the death of King Joseph, on 24 Feb.

He died in retirement, having for years suffered from leprosy and the fear of the punishment he had meted out to others. The bishop of Coimbra presided at his funeral, while a well-known Benedictine delivered the panegyric. Even to the end Pombal had many admirers among the clergy, and he is regarded by the Portuguese as one of their greatest statesmen and called the great Marquis.

Prestage, E. Marquis de Pombal. Prestage, Edgar. With thanks to St. Mary's Church, Akron, Ohio. June 1, Remy Lafort, S. Ignatius of Loyola in , just 11 years after he founded the Society of Jesus Jesuits. It quickly grew to include classes from elementary school through university level and moved to several successive locations to accommodate its burgeoning student population. Ignatius in , and a renowned observatory in The college remained at this location for years until the revolutionary Capture of Rome in In , the remaining philosophical and theological faculties of the Roman College moved to new quarters and formed the Gregorian University , named after the College's patron.

Though taken over by the Italian government, the original buildings on a full square block memorialize the early commitment of the Jesuits to education. Currently, its eastern wing houses the headquarters of the Ministry of Heritage and Culture with entrance on Via del Collegio Romano and the wing overlooking the square is home to the high school Ennio Quirino Visconti.

The first university founded by the Jesuits was the College of Messina in Then in , to make up for the shortage of public schools in Rome and to provide for better training of both religious and secular clergy during the Counter-Reformation period, the Roman College was founded, [6] open only to men.

He had been a professed member of the Society of Jesus since but secretly; he retained his rank while attending to his obligations and settling his children. In the Collegio Romano was a small, rented building at the base of the Capitoline Hill , on today's Piazza d'Aracoeli. Jesuit Fr. Polanco wrote of teaching Latin and Greek and later Hebrew: "Christian doctrine is taught.

Above the door of the school a sign says: a free school of grammar, humanism, and Christian doctrine. Within its first year the building could not accommodate the influx of students and Ignatius sought a larger facility. This second home of the Roman College was called the House of Frangipani after the famous family which owned it. The building was later demolished. This then was the second home of the Roman College.

Despite the cost, Ignatius wanted to begin teaching philosophy and theology in the school year — This increased the student body, both of Jesuits and externs. In , the financial conditions became such that the students had to be distributed among the various colleges of the Society in Italy.

On 17 January Pope Paul IV, seeing the great good that the Collegio Romano was for the young, gave it the privilege of conferring degrees in philosophy and theology with all the privileges of other universities. At this time also Ignatius founded the print shop which over the years introduced new typefaces, becoming the model in the business. Due to flood damage in that part of the House of Frangipani, and because of the growing number of students, the Roman College in moved to the house of Giovan Battista Salviati, that connected to the back of the church of Santa Maria in Via Lata , on the east side of today's Piazza del Collegio Romano.

Jesuit theologian Francisco de Toledo was a professor at the college at this time. Four years later, the Roman College became too small for the growing number of students and larger premises were sought. The building was demolished when Salviati built the new Roman College, since he wanted to enlarge the square for the Roman College. This remained the site of the Roman College until the takeover of its buildings by the Italian government in Ignatius of Loyola had died on 31 July and was succeeded by Fr.

James P. Laynez , an original companion of Ignatius and a papal theologian during the three periods of the Council of Trent. The Jesuits used the existing block of buildings, awaiting a benefactor to build a college building for their burgeoning student population on their more than ample land. That benefactor came in the person of Pope Gregory XIII who took a liking to the nascent institution and in assigned larger annuities.

Then in with funding from the Pope and his relatives, on 11 January his nephew Cardinal Filippo Boncompagni laid the foundation stone for the new college building, designed by Florentine architect Bartolomeo Ammannati. Classes began on 28 October Later on, in memory of its benefactor, the Roman College took the name of Gregorian University.

For a chapel, the Annunziata begun by the Poor Clares was completed by the Jesuits. It was built in and decorated in with a fresco by Federico Zuccari in the apse. But by this proved too small for a student population that exceeded After the canonization of St. Ignatius of Loyola in , Cardinal Ludovico Ludovisi , nephew of Pope Gregory XV , financed the construction of much larger church named for the new saint. The old church and a part of a classroom wing of the Roman College were removed to make room for the church of St.

It was designed by the Jesuit Orazio Grassi and solemnly consecrated in The flat ceiling and missing dome were frescoed by painter Jesuit Brother Andrea Pozzo , in a style that creates the illusion of depth photo on right.

The Roman College became the center of academia in its time. It hosted many learned debates including those between Galileo Galilei and Paolo Segneri , master of oratory. The German Jesuit scholar Athanasius Kircher , "Master of a Hundred Arts", was a professor at the college and left on the premises a museum filled with his works.

The Jesuits were particularly drawn to astronomy and had a large observatory tower and scientific laboratories constructed on the roof of the annexed church, in The building of the College consists of two large, colonnaded courtyards and large classrooms.

In , with the suppression of the Society of Jesus, the Jesuits entrusted the college to the secular clergy. It was seriously damaged during the French occupation of Rome. Ignatius to the Society of Jesus. Leo himself was present for the inauguration of the new academic year on 2 November Giovanni Perrone was among the distinguished faculty of theology of that time.

With the reopening of the Roman College the famous astronomical observatory was restored and enlarged. The Jesuits experienced a setback during the Roman Republic , when on 29 March they were expelled and their building became a Roman seminary. The following year the building was occupied and heavily damaged by the revolutionaries who burned a wing of the college.

On 7 August the French arrived to liberate Rome. On 3 March the Roman seminary was returned and classes resumed. Twenty years later on 20 September , with the occupation troops of Savoy in Rome, the college was used as a barracks for sharpshooters; classrooms were used for a technical school and high school. On 6 November the College was closed and the symbol of the Society of Jesus was chiseled from the doors; until then both the Jacobins and Mazzini had spared it.

It remained open only as a school of philosophy and theology for the Roman clergy. On 17 January the libraries, astronomical observatory, scientific laboratory, and the Kircher Museum were taken over by the new government. With the extension of the rule of Savoy to the city of Rome, the Jesuits were finally removed. Pius IX protested against this usurpation with the encyclical Etsi fine luctuosa of 21 November The community of Jesuit professors found hospitality at the Palazzo Borromeo-Gabrielli as guests of the German College moved elsewhere in , now home to students of the Jesuit Bellarmine College.

The Roman College would live on only through its philosophy and theology faculties, which had departed the premises in Na Zaobljube je napravil avgusta General of the Society of Jesus b. He belonged to one of the most ancient, and illustrious families of Tuscany. He had two brothers, one of whom subsequently became canon of the. Sent when very young to Prato to pursue, his studies under the direction of the Society of Jesus in the celebrated Cicognini college, he entered the society when he was scarcely fifteen, 16 Dec.

Andrea at Rome. Having made the usual course of philosophical and theological studies and twice defended with rare success public theses in these subjects, he was successively charged with teaching belles lettres and philosophy it Siena, and philosophy and theology at the Roman College, from which he was promoted to the foremost office of his order.

Meanwhile he was admitted to the profession of the four vows, 15 Aug. About his edifying and regular life, his discretion, gentleness, and simplicity caused him to be appointed to the important office of spiritual father, the duties of which he discharged to the satisfaction of all.

In Father Luigi Centurione, who appreciated his eminent qualities, chose him as secretary of the society. Finally in the Nineteenth Congregation he was elected general by unanimous vote, 21 May, It was at the most stormy and distressed period of its existence that the senate of the society placed its government and its destinies in the, hand of a man deeply virtuous and endowed with rare merit, but, who was inexperienced in the art of governing and who had always lived apart from the world and diplomatic intrigues.

The historiographer Julius Cordara, who lived near Ricci and seems to have known him intimately, deplored this choice: "Eundem tot, inter iactationes ac fluctus cum aliquid praeter morem audendum et malis inusitatis inusitata remedia adhibenda videbantur, propter ipsam nature placiditatem et nulla unquam causa incalescentem animum, minus aptum arbitrabar" On account of his placid nature and too even temper, I regarded him as little suited for a time when disturbance and storm seem to require extraordinary application of unusual remedies to unusual evils.

Denkwurdigkeiten der Jesuiten, p. On the other hand it must be admitted that the new general did not have much leeway. In his first interview with Clement XIII, who had assumed the tiara 6 July, , and always showed himself deeply attached to the Jesuits, the pope counselled him: "Silentium, patientiam et preces; cetera sibi curae fore" Cordara, op.

The seven encyclical letters which he addressed to them in the fifteen years of his generalship all breathe the sweetest and tenderest piety and zeal for their religious perfection. Epistolae praepositorum generalium S. This pious and profoundly upright man was nevertheless not wanting on occasion in courage and firmness. When it was suggested to save the French provinces of his order by giving them a superior entirely independent of the general of Rome he refused thus to transgress the.

Cordara, op. When, to the mass of pamphlets aimed against the Jesuits, the Portuguese episcopate brought the reinforcement of pastoral letters, a number of bishops wrote to the pope letters which were very eulogistic of the Society of Jesus and its Institute, and Clement XIII hastened to send a copy to Father Ricci. It was a brilliant apologia for the order Cordara and many of his brethren considered it, expedient to publish this correspondence in full with the sole title: "ludicium Ecclesiae, universae, de statu praesenti Societatis Iesu" op.

Timoni, who fancied that no one would dare any thing against the Jesuits of Portugal, was of a contrary opinion, and the general was won over to his way of thinking. Disaster followed disaster, and Ricci experienced the most serious material difficulties in assisting the members who were expelled from every country.

At his instance, and perhaps even with his collaboration, Clement XIII, solicitous for the fate of the Society, published 7 January, , the Bull "Apostolicam pascendi", which was a cogent defence of the Institute and its members Masson, "Le cardinal de, Bernis depuis son ministere" But even the pontiff's intervention could not stay the devastating torrent. His successor, the conventual Ganganelli, little resembled him. Whatever may have been his sympathies for the order prior to his elevation to the sovereign pontificate, and his indebtedness to Ricci, who had used his powerful influence to secure for him the cardinal's hat, it is indisputable that once he became pope he assumed at least in appearance a hostile attitude.

Despite the exactions and outrageous injustices which the Jesuit houses had to undergo even at Rome, the general did not give up hope of a speedy deliverance, as is testified by the letter he wrote to Cordara the day after the feast of St. Ignatius, Cordara, loc. Although the Brief of abolition had been signed by the pope ten days previously, Father Ricci was suddenly notified on the evening of 16 August.

The next day he was assigned the English College as residence, until 23 Sept. The surveillance was so severe that he did not learn of the death of his secretary Cornolli, imprisoned with him and in his vicinity, until six months after the event. To satisfy the hatred of his enemies his trial and that of his companions was hastened, but the judge ended by recognizing "nunquam objectos sibi reos his innocentiores; Riccium etiam ut hominem vere sanctum dilaudabat" Cordara, op.

Justice required that the ex-general be at once set at liberty, but nothing was done, apparently through fear lest the scattered Jesuits should gather about their old head, to reconstruct their society at the centre of Catholicism. But while his claims were being considered by the circle of the Sovereign Pontiff, death came to summon the venerable old man to the tribunal of the supreme Judge.

Five days previously, when about to receive Holy Viaticum, he made this double protest: 1 "I declare and protest that the suppressed Society of Jesus has not given any cause for its suppression; this I declare and protest with all that moral certainty that a superior well informed of his order can have. I make this second protest only because it is necessary for the reputation of the suppressed Society of Jesus, of which I was the general.

To do honour to his memory the pope caused the celebration of elaborate funeral services in the church of St. John of the Florentines near the Castle of Sant' Angelo. As is customary with prelates, the body was placed on a bed of state. It was carried in the evening to the Church of the Gesu where it was buried in the vault reserved for the burial of his predecessors in the government of the order. These memoirs carry much weight, inasmuch as Cordara speaks with severity of his former brothers in arms, and of the Society of Jesus.

Theiner 2nd ed. Van Ortroy, F. Lorenzo Ricci. Van Ortroy, Francis. February 1, Remy Lafort, D. Zakrament krsta je prejel 2. Janez je Klemen XIV. Tokrat je Wolfgang pokazal neverjeten podvig glasbenega spomina. To omejevanje je nadaljeval tudi Benedikt XIV. Omahljivega Benedikta XIV. Tako je kmalu po zatrtju jezuitov dolgoletna setev "razsvetljenih" filozofov enciklopedistov dozorela v klas, ki se je imenoval Francoska revolucija Dieses ist die wahre Ursache des Hasses, den man gegen diese Gesellschaft hegte.

Sredi Dne Noto il caso di S. Alfonso de Liguori del 21 settembre durante il quale il Santo sarebbe stato contemporaneamente ad Arienzo e a Roma ad assistere la morte di Papa Clemente XIV avvenuta il 22 settembre Enciclopedia di metapsichica, di parapsicologia e di spiritismo.

Bompiani Editore. Njegovo grobnico v slogu neoklasicizma je zasnoval in izklesal Antonio Canova in sicer v omenjeni Baziliki Svetih apostolov. Malahijeva prerokba pravi o Klemenu XIV. Klemenu XIV. Klement XIV. Clement XIV elevated sixteen new cardinals into the cardinalate in twelve consistories including Giovanni Angelo Braschi , [20] who succeeded him.

The pope held no canonizations in his pontificate but he beatified a number of individuals. Gallicanism and Jansenism, Febronianism and Rationalism were up in rebellion against the authority of the Roman pontiff; the rulers of France, Spain, Naples, Portugal, Parma were on the side of the sectarians who flattered their dynastic prejudices and, at least in appearance, worked for the strengthening of the temporal power against the spiritual.

The new pope would have to face a coalition of moral and political forces which Clement XIII had indeed manfully resisted, but failed to put down, or even materially to check. The great question between Rome and the Bourbon princes was the suppression of the Society of Jesus. In France, Spain, and Portugal the suppression had taken place de facto; the accession of a new pope was made the occasion for insisting on the abolition of the order root and branch, de facto and de jure, in Europe and all over the world.

The conclave assembled 15 February, Rarely, if ever, has a conclave been the victim of such overweening interference, base intrigues, and unwarranted pressure. The Sacred college, consisting of forty-seven cardinals, was divided into Court cardinals and Zelanti. The latter, favourable to the Jesuits and opposed to the encroaching secular, were in a majority.

The immediate object of the intriguers was to gain over a sufficient number of Zelanti. The cardinal, however, refused. In a memorandum to Choiseul, dated 12 April, , he says: "To require from the future pope a promise made in writing or before witnesses, to destroy the Jesuits, would be a flagrant violation of the canon law and therefore a blot on the honour of the crowns. Threats were now resorted to; Bernis hinted at a blockade of Rome and popular insurrections to overcome the resistance of the Zelanti.

France and Spain, in virtue of their right of veto, excluded twenty-three of the forty-seven cardinals; nine or ten more, on account of their age or for some other reason, were not papabili; only four or five remained eligible. Well might the Sacred College, as Bernis feared it would, protest against violence and separate on the plea of not being free to elect a suitable candidate.

He wished to intimidate the cardinals. The ambassadors threatened to leave Rome unless the conclave surrendered to their dictation. Solis insisted on a written promise to suppress the Jesuits being given by the future pope, but Bernis was not to be gained over to such a breach of the law. Solis, therefore, supported in the conclave by Cardinal Malvazzi and outside by the ambassadors of France and Spain, took the matter into his own hands. He began by sounding Cardinal Ganganelli as to his willingness to give the promise required by the Bourbon princes as an indispensable condition for election.

This cardinal was the only friar in the Sacred College. Of humble birth his father had been a surgeon at Sant' Arcangelo , he had received his education from the Jesuits of Rimini and the Piarists of Urbino, and, in , at the age of nineteen, had entered the Order of Friars Minor of St.

Francis and changed his baptismal name Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio for that of Lorenzo. During the conclave he endeavoured to please both the Zelanti and the Court party without committing himself to either. At any rate he signed a paper which satisfied Solis. The original paper is, however, nowhere to be found, but its existence seems established by subsequent events, and also by the testimony of Bernis in letters to Choiseul 28 July, and 20 November, Bernis, anxious to have his share in the victory of the sovereigns, urged the election.

On 18 May, , Ganganelli was elected by forty-six votes out of forty-seven, the forty-seventh being his own which he had given to Cardinal Rezzonico, a nephew of Clement XIII. He took the name of Clement XIV. The new pope's first Encyclical clearly defined his policy: to keep the peace with Catholic princes in order to secure their support in the war against irreligion. His predecessor had left him a legacy of broils with nearly every Catholic power in Europe.

Clement hastened to settle as many as he could by concessions and conciliatory measures. Without revoking the constitution of Clement XIII against the young Duke of Parma's inroads on the rights of the Church, he refrained from urging its execution, and graciously granted him a dispensation to marry his cousin, the Archduchess Amelia, daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria.

The King of Spain, soothed by these concessions, withdrew the uncanonical edict which, a year before, he had issued as a counterblast to the pope's proceedings against the infant Duke of Parma, the king's nephew; he also re-established the nuncio's tribunal and condemned some writings against Rome. Portugal had been severed from Rome since ; Clement XIV began his attempt at reconciliation by elevating to the Sacred College Paulo de Carvalho, brother of the famous minister Pombal; active negotiations terminated in the revocation, by King Joseph I, of the ordinances of , the origin and cause of the rupture between Portugal and the Holy See.

A grievance common to Catholic princes was the yearly publication, on Holy Thursday, of the censures reserved to the pope; Clement abolished this custom in the first Lent of his pontificate. But there remained the ominous question of the Jesuits. The Bourbon princes, though thankful for smaller concessions, would not rest till they had obtained the great object of their machinations, the total suppression of the Society.

Although persecuted in France, Spain, Sicily, and Portugal, the Jesuits had still many powerful protectors: the rulers, as well as the public conscience, protected them and their numerous establishments in the ecclesiastical electorates of Germany, in the Palatinate, Bavaria, Silesia, Poland, Switzerland, and the many countries subject to the sceptre of Maria Theresa, not to mention the States of the Church and the foreign missions.

The Bourbon princes were moved in their persecution by the spirit of the times, represented in Latin countries by French irreligious philosophism, by Jansenism, Gallicanism, and Erastianism; probably also by the natural desire to receive the papal sanction for their unjust proceedings against the order, for which they stood accused at the bar of the Catholic conscience.

Advertisement - Continue Reading Below An ever-recurring and almost solitary grievance against the Society was that the Fathers disturbed the peace wherever they were firmly established. Cardinal de Bernis, now French ambassador in Rome, was instructed by Choiseul to follow the lead of Spain in the renewed campaign against the Jesuits. On the 22nd of July, , he presented to the pope a memorandum in the name of the three ministers of the Bourbon kings, "The three monarchs", it ran, "still believe the destruction of the Jesuits to be useful and necessary; they have already made their request to Your Holiness, and they renew it this day.

This latter, bent on the immediate suppression of the order, obtained from Clement XIV, under the strong pressure of Azpuru, the written promise "to submit to His Majesty a scheme for the absolute extinction of the Society" 30 November, To prove his sincerity the pope now commenced open hostilities against the Jesuits. He refused to see their general, Father Ricci, and gradually removed from his entourage their best friends; his only confidants were two friars of his own order, Buontempo and Francesco; no princes or cardinals surrounded his throne.

The Roman people, dissatisfied with this state of things and reduced to starvation by maladministration, openly showed their discontent, but Clement, bound by his promises and caught in the meshes of Bourbon diplomacy, was unable to retrace his steps. The college and seminary of Frascati were taken from the Jesuits and handed over to the bishop of the town, the Cardinal of York. Their Lenten catechisms were prohibited for A congregation of cardinals hostile to the order visited the Roman College and had the Fathers expelled; the novitiate and the German College were also attacked.

The German College won its cause, but the sentence was never executed. The novices and students were sent back to their families. Nowhere did the Jesuits offer any resistance; they knew that their efforts were futile. Father Garnier wrote: "You ask me why the Jesuits offer no defence: they can do nothing here. All approaches, direct and indirect, are completely closed, walled up with double walls. Not the most insignificant memorandum can find its way in.

There is no one who would undertake to hand it in" 19th Jan. At once he made an onslaught on the perplexed pope. He openly threatened him with a schism in Spain and probably in the other Bourbon states, such as had existed in Portugal from to On the other hand, he promised the restitution of Avignon and Benevento, still held by France and Naples.

Whilst Clement's anger was roused by this latter simoniacal proposal, his good, but feeble, heart could not overcome the fear of a widespread schism. He now ransacked the archives of Rome and Spain to supply Clement with facts justifying the promised suppression.

Meanwhile Clement continued to harass the Jesuits of his own dominions, perhaps with a view to preparing the Catholic world for the Brief of suppression, or perhaps hoping by his severity to soothe the anger of Charles III and to stave off the abolition of the whole order. But Charles Emmanuel died, and Maria Theresa, giving way to the importunate prayers of her son Joseph II and her daughter the Queen of Naples, ceased to plead for the maintenance of the Society.

It was signed 8 June, ; at the same time a congregation of cardinals was appointed to administer the property of the suppressed order. Ignatius; the pope, hearing them, remarked: "They are not ringing for the saints but for the dead". The Brief of suppression, signed on 8 June, bears the date 21 July, Ricci never saw the end of it. He died in prison, to his last moment protesting his innocence and that of his order.

His companions were set free under Pius VI, their judges having found them "not guilty". The Brief, "Dominus ac Redemptor" opens with the statement that it is the pope's office to secure in the world the unity of mind in the bonds of peace. He must therefore be prepared, for the sake of charity, to uproot and destroy the things most dear to him, whatever pains and bitterness their loss may entail. Often the popes, his predecessors, have made use of their supreme authority for reforming, and even dissolving, religious orders which had become harmful and disturbed the peace of the nations rather than promoted it.

Numerous examples are quoted, then the Brief continues: "Our predecessors, in virtue of the plenitude of power which is theirs as Vicars of Christ, have suppressed such orders without allowing them to state their claims or to refute the grave accusations brought against them, or to impugn the motives of the pope. Having enumerated the principal favours granted it by former popes, he remarks that "the very tenor and terms of the said Apostolic constitutions show that the Society from its earliest days bore the germs of dissensions and jealousies which tore its own members asunder, led them to rise against other religious orders, against the secular clergy and the universities, nay even against the sovereigns who had received them in their states".

Clement XIII had hoped to silence their enemies by renewing the approbation of their Institute, "but the Holy See derived no consolation, the Society no help, Christianity no advantage from the Apostolic letters of Clement XIII, of blessed memory, letters which were wrung from him rather than freely given". At the end of this pope's reign "the outcry and the complaints against the Society increasing day by day, the very princes whose piety and hereditary benevolence towards it are favourably known of all nations — our beloved Sons in Jesus Christ the Kings of France, Spain, Portugal, and the two Sicilies — were forced to expel from their kingdoms, states and provinces, all the religious of this Order, well knowing that this extreme measure was the only remedy to such great evils.

After long and mature consideration the pope, "compelled by his office, which imposes on him the obligation to procure, maintain, and consolidate with all his power the peace and tranquillity of the Christian people — persuaded, moreover, that the Society of Jesus is no longer able to produce the abundant fruit and the great good for which it was instituted — and considering that, as long as this order subsists, it is impossible for the Church to enjoy free and solid peace", resolves to "suppress and abolish" the Society, "to annul and abrogate all and each of its offices, functions, and administrations".

The authority of the superiors was transferred to the bishops; minute provisions were made for the maintenance and the employment of the members of the order.

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