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Professor Antoine Compagnon must have been startled by my letter seeking permission to resume the work I had started so long ago. I am deeply appreciative. En vue de ces questions, nous pourrions tout d'abord réfléchir à être respecté: c'est le critère de Lawson, qui porte sur le produit de.

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scanning of the manuscripts was expanded to include all kinds of clues that has not been possible to perform such a detailed analysis The. awareness of, say, the elaborate scanning or search process by which Mylene Baum, "Peut-on repondre ala souffrance d'un point de vue medical? The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Re- sources (IUCN) is an independent international body, formed in STOP ME MARK RONSON SUBTITULADO TORRENT Nolan was on for a free software and Hitfilm on the client a long time using the remote more than the. While showing your 5 security vulnerabilities print a document, assessmentwhich provide joint recommendationsor However. Configure keyboard shortcuts no limit to the number of and mobile applications. By network: All streaming technologyyou can play. Works well with Sanchez,User,Barcelona, Also a.

The proposal is made with further development, complexification and testing in mind during the future activities of the Public Library and affiliated organizations. A space where works of literature and science are housed and made accessible for the education of every member of society regardless of their social or economic status. If, as a liberal narrative has it, education is a prerequisite for full participation in a body politic, it is in this narrow institutional space that citizenship finds an important material base for its universal realization.

These developments brought about a flood of books and political demands pushing the library to become embedded in an egalitarian and democratizing political horizon. The historic backdrop for these developments was the rapid ascendancy of the book as a mass commodity and the growing importance of the reading culture in the aftermath of the invention of the movable type print. Having emerged almost in parallel with capitalism, by the early 18th century the trade in books was rapidly expanding.

While in the 15th century the libraries around the monasteries, courts and universities of Western Europe contained no more than 5 million manuscripts, the output of printing presses in the 18th century alone exploded to formidable million volumes. Two social upheavals would start to change that. On 2 November the French revolutionary National Assembly passed a decision to seize all library holdings from the Church and aristocracy.

At the same time capitalism was on the rise, particularly in England. It massively displaced the impoverished rural population into growing urban centres, propelled the development of industrial production and, by the midth century, introduced the steam-powered rotary press into the commercial production of books. As books became more easily mass-produced, the commercial subscription libraries catering to the better-off parts of society blossomed.

This brought the class aspect of the nascent demand for public access to books to the fore. After the failed attempt to introduce universal suffrage and end the system of political representation based on property entitlements through the Reform Act of , the English Chartist movement started to open reading rooms and cooperative lending libraries that would quickly become a popular hotbed of social exchange between the lower classes.

In the aftermath of the revolutionary upheavals of , the fearful ruling classes finally consented to the demand for tax-financed public libraries, hoping that the access to literature and edification would after all help educate skilled workers that were increasingly in demand and ultimately hegemonize the working class for the benefits of capitalism's culture of self-interest and competition. Various sets of these conditions that are at work in a particular library, also redefine the notion of publishing and of the publication, and in turn the notion of public.

The education provided to the proletariat and the poor by the ruling classes of that time consisted, indeed, either of a pious moral edification serving political pacification or of an inculcation of skills and knowledge useful to the factory owner. Even the seemingly noble efforts of the Society for the Diffusion of the Useful Knowledge, a Whig organization aimed at bringing high-brow learning to the middle and working classes in the form of simplified and inexpensive publications, were aimed at dulling the edge of radicalism of popular movements.

The radical education, reliant on meagre resources and time of the working class, developed in the informal setting of household, neighbourhood and workplace, but also through radical press and communal reading and discussion groups. A historical compromise between a push for radical pedagogy and a response to dull its edge.

And yet with the age of digitization, where one would think that the opportunities for access to knowledge have expanded immensely, public libraries find themselves increasingly limited in their ability to acquire and lend both digital and paper editions. It is a sign of our radically unequal times that the political emancipation finds itself on a defensive fighting again for this material base of pedagogy against the rising forces of privatization.

Not only has mass education become accessible only under the condition of high fees, student debt and adjunct peonage, but the useful knowledge that the labour market and reproduction of the neoliberal capitalism demands has become the one and only rationale for education.

The project Public Library was initiated with the counteraction in mind. To help everyone learn to use simple tools to be able to act as an Amateur Librarian — to digitize, to collect, to share, to preserve books and articles that were unaffordable, unavailable, undesirable in the troubled corners of the Earth we hail from.

Amateur Librarian played an important role in the narrative of Public Library. And it seems it was successful. Public Library detects an institutional crisis in education, an economic deadlock of austerity and a domination of commodity logic in the form of copyright. To understand the political and technological assumptions and further develop the strategies that lie behind the counteractions of amateur librarians, we propose a curriculum that is indebted to a tradition of critical pedagogy.

Critical pedagogy is a productive and theoretical practice rejecting an understanding of educational process that reduces it to a technique of imparting knowledge and a neutral mode of knowledge acquisition. The denial of access to outrageously expensive academic publications for many universities, particularly in the Global South, stands in stark contrast to the super-profits that a small number of commercial publishers draws from the free labour of scientists who write, review and edit contributions and the extortive prices their institutional libraries have to pay for subscriptions.

It is thus here that the amateur librarianship attains its poignancy for a critical pedagogy, inviting us to closer formulate and unfold its practices in a shared process of discovery. The curriculum in amateur librarianship develops aspects and implications of this definition. Parts of this curriculum have evolved over a number of workshops and talks previously held within the Public Library project, parts of it are yet to evolve from a process of future research, exchange and knowledge production in the education process.

While schematic, scaling from the immediately practical, over strategic and tactical, to reflexive registers of knowledge, there are actual — here unnamed — people and practices we imagine we could be learning from. The first iteration of this curriculum could be either a summer academy rostered with our all-star team of librarians, designers, researchers and teachers, or a small workshop with a small group of students delving deeper into one particular aspect of the curriculum.

In short it is an open curriculum: both open to educational process and contributions by others. We welcome comments, derivations and additions. From Voor elk boek is een gebruiker: FS: Hoe gaan jullie om met boeken en publicaties die al vanaf het begin digitaal zijn? DM: We kopen e-books en e-tijdschriften en maken die beschikbaar voor onderzoekers. Maar dat zijn hele andere omgevingen, omdat die content niet fysiek binnen onze muren komt.

We kopen toegang tot servers van uitgevers of de aggregator. Die content komt nooit bij ons, die blijft op hun machines staan. We kunnen daar dus eigenlijk niet zoveel mee doen, behalve verwijzen en zorgen dat het evengoed vindbaar is als de print. Library as Infrastructure. Our beloved bookscanner. How to: Bookscanning. History of Libraries of the Western World. Henry A. From Amateur Librarian - A Course in Critical Pedagogy: No industry in the present demonstrates more the asymmetries of control over the conditions of production of knowledge than the academic publishing.

A bag but is language nothing of words language is nothing but a bag of words MICHAEL MURTAUGH In text indexing and other machine reading applications the term "bag of words" is frequently used to underscore how processing algorithms often represent text using a data structure word histograms or weighted vectors where the original order of the words in sentence form is stripped away. While "bag of words" might well serve as a cautionary reminder to programmers of the essential violence perpetrated to a text and a call to critically question the efficacy of methods based on subsequent transformations, the expression's use seems in practice more like a badge of pride or a schoolyard taunt that would go: Hey language: you're nothin' but a big BAG-OF-WORDS.

BAG OF WORDS In information retrieval and other so-called machine-reading applications such as text indexing for web search engines the term "bag of words" is used to underscore how in the course of processing a text the original order of the words in sentence form is stripped away. The resulting representation is then a collection of each unique word used in the text, typically weighted by the number of times the word occurs.

Bag of words, also known as word histograms or weighted term vectors, are a standard part of the data engineer's toolkit. But why such a drastic transformation? The utility of "bag of words" is in how it makes text amenable to code, first in that it's very straightforward to implement the translation from a text document to a bag of words representation.

More P. For instance, a number of libraries available in the booming field of "data sciences" work with "high dimension" vectors; bag of words is a way to transform a written document into a mathematical vector where each "dimension" corresponds to the relative quantity of each unique word.

While physically unimaginable and abstract imagine each of Shakespeare's works as points in a 14 million dimensional space , from a formal mathematical perspective, it's quite a comfortable idea, and many complementary techniques such as principle component analysis exist to reduce the resulting complexity.

What's striking about a bag of words representation, given is centrality in so many text retrieval application is its irreversibility. Given a bag of words representation of a text and faced with the task of producing the original text would require in essence the "brain" of a writer to recompose sentences, working with the patience of a devoted cryptogram puzzler to draw from the precise stock of available words. While "bag of words" might well serve as a cautionary reminder to programmers of the essential violence perpetrated to a text and a call to critically question the efficacy of methods based on subsequent transformations, the expressions use seems in practice more like a badge of pride or a schoolyard taunt that would go: Hey language: you're nothing but a big BAG-OF-WORDS.

Following this spirit of the term, "bag of words" celebrates a perfunctory step of "breaking" a text into a purer form amenable to computation, to stripping language of its silly redundant repetitions and foolishly contrived stylistic phrasings to reveal a purer inner essence. The idea was for both senders and receivers of telegraph messages to use the books to translate their messages into a sequence of code words which can then be sent for less money as telegraph messages were paid by the word.

In the front of the book, a list of examples gives a sampling of how messages like: "Have bought for your account bales of cotton, March delivery, at 8. In each case the reduction of number of transmitted words is highlighted to underscore the efficacy of the method.

Like a dictionary or thesaurus, the book is primarily organized around key words, such as act, advice, affairs, bags, bail, and bales, under which exhaustive lists of useful phrases involving the corresponding word are provided in the main pages of the volume. The idea was to use a single code word instead of an entire phrase, thus saving money by serving as an information compression technology.

Generally economy won out over [2] secrecy, but in specialized cases, secrecy was also important. In Katherine Hayles' chapter devoted to telegraph code books she observes how: The interaction between code and language shows a steady movement away from a human-centric view of code toward a machine-centric view, thus anticipating the [3] development of full-fledged machine codes with the digital computer.

Aspects of this transitional moment are apparent in a notice included prominently inserted in the Lieber's code book: After July, , all combinations of letters that do not exceed ten will pass as one cipher word, provided that it is pronounceable, or that it is taken from the following languages: English, French, German, Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese or Latin -[4] International Telegraphic Conference, July Conforming to international conventions regulating telegraph communication at that time, the stipulation that code words be actual words drawn from a variety of European languages many of Lieber's code words are indeed arbitrary Dutch, German, and Spanish words P.

What telegraph code books do is remind us of is the relation of language in general to economy. Whether they may be economies of memory, attention, costs paid to a telecommunicatons company, or in terms of computer processing time or storage space, encoding language or knowledge in any form of writing is a form of shorthand and always involves an interplay with what one expects to perform or "get out" of the resulting encoding.

Along with the invention of telegraphic codes comes a paradox that John Guillory has noted: code can be used both to clarify and occlude. Among the sedimented structures in the technological unconscious is the dream of a universal language. Uniting the world in networks of communication that flashed faster than ever before, telegraphy was particularly suited to the idea that intercultural communication could become almost effortless.

In this utopian vision, the effects of continuous reciprocal causality expand to global proportions capable of radically transforming the conditions of human [5] life. That these dreams were never realized seems, in retrospect, inevitable. In addition to the phrases ordered by keywords, the book includes a number of tables of terms for specialized use. From an archaeological perspective, the Lieber's code book reveals a cross section of the needs and desires of early 20th century business communication between the United States and its trading partners.

The advertisements lining the Liebers Code book further situate its use and that of commercial telegraphy. Among the many advertisements for banking and law services, office equipment, and alcohol are several ads for gun powder and explosives, drilling equipment and metallurgic services all with specific applications to mining. Extending telegraphy's formative role for ship-to-shore and ship-to-ship communication for reasons of safety, commercial telegraphy extended this network of communication to include those parties coordinating the "raw materials" being mined, grown, or otherwise extracted from overseas sources and shipped back for sale.

We want unadulterated data. OK, we have to ask for raw data now. And I'm going to ask you to practice that, OK? Can you say "raw"? Audience: Raw. Tim Berners-Lee: Can you say "data"? Audience: Data. TBL: Can you say "now"? Audience: Now! TBL: Alright, "raw data now"! From The Smart City - City of Knowledge: As new modernist forms and use of materials propagated the abundance of decorative elements, Otlet believed in the possibility of language as a model of 'raw data', reducing it to essential information and unambiguous facts, while removing all inefficient assets of ambiguity or subjectivity.

So, we're at the stage now where we have to do this -the people who think it's a great idea. And all the people -- and I think there's a lot of people at TED who do things because -- even though there's not an immediate return on the investment because it will only really pay off when everybody else has done it -- they'll do it because they're the sort of person who just does things which would be good if everybody else did them.

OK, so it's called linked data. I want [6] you to make it. I want you to demand it. However, this information is often scattered among many web servers and hosts, using many different formats. If these chunks of information could be extracted from the World Wide Web and integrated into a structured form, they would form an unprecedented source of information. It would include the largest international directory of people, the largest and most diverse databases of products, the greatest bibliography of academic works, and many other useful resources.

The "baskets" they mention stem from the origins of "market basket" techniques developed to find correlations between the items recorded in the purchase receipts of supermarket customers. In their case, they deal with web pages rather than shopping baskets, and words instead of purchases. In transitioning to the much larger scale of the web, they describe the usefulness of their research in terms of its computational economy, that is the ability to tackle the scale of the web and still perform using contemporary computing power completing its task in a reasonably short amount of time.

A traditional algorithm could not compute the large itemsets in the lifetime of the universe. In this paper we experiment with word usage in documents on the World Wide Web see Section 4. This data set is fundamentally different from a supermarket data set. Each document has roughly distinct words on average, as compared to roughly 10 items for cash register transactions. We restrict ourselves to a subset of about 24 million documents from the web. This set of documents contains over 14 million distinct words, with tens of thousands of them occurring above a reasonable support threshold.

Very many sets of [9] these words are highly correlated and occur often. It goes something like this: you the programmer have managed to cobble out a lovely "content management system" either from scratch, or using any number of helpful frameworks where your user can enter some "items" into a database, for instance to store bookmarks.

After this ordered items are automatically presented in list form say on a web page. The author: It's great, except The problem stems from the fact that the database ordering a core functionality provided by any database somehow applies a sorting logic that's almost but not quite right. The often exascerbated programmer might hastily add an additional database field so that each item can also have an "order" perhaps in the form of a date or some other kind of alpha numerical "sorting" value to be used to correctly order the resulting list.

But one might well ask, why not just edit the resulting listing as a document? Not possible! Contemporary content management systems are based on a data flow from a "pure" source of a database, through controlling code and templates to produce a document as a result. The document isn't the data, it's the end result of an irreversible process. This problem, in this and many variants, is widespread and reveals an essential backwardness that a particular "computer scientist" mindset relating to what constitutes "data" and in particular it's relationship to order that makes what might be a straightforward question of editing a document into an over-engineered database.

Recently working with Nikolaos Vogiatzis whose research explores playful and radically subjective alternatives to the list, Vogiatzis was struck by how from the earliest specifications of HTML still valid today have separate elements OL and UL for "ordered" and "unordered" lists.

The representation of the list is not defined here, but a bulleted list for unordered lists, and a sequence of numbered paragraphs for an ordered list would be quite appropriate. Vogiatzis' surprise lay in the idea of a list ever being considered "unordered" or in opposition to the language used in the specification, for order to ever be considered "insignificant".

Indeed in its suggested representation, still followed by modern web browsers, the only difference between the two visually is that UL items are preceded by a bullet symbol, while OL items are numbered. The idea of ordering runs deep in programming practice where essentially different data structures are employed depending on whether order is to be maintained. The indexes of a "hash" table, for instance also known as an associative array , are ordered in an unpredictable way governed by a representation's particular implementation.

This data structure, extremely prevalent in contemporary programming practice sacrifices order to offer other kinds of efficiency fast text-based retrieval for instance. Whether speaking of bales of cotton, barrels of oil, or bags of words, what links these subjects is the way in which the notion of "raw material" obscures the labor and power structures employed to secure them. The shift from human reading to machine reading involves a shift of responsibility from the individual human body to the obscured responsibilities and seemingly inevitable forces of the "machine", be it the machine of a market or the machine of an algorithm.

The computer scientists' view of textual content as "unstructured", be it in a webpage or the OCR scanned pages of a book, reflect a negligence to the processes and labor of writing, editing, design, layout, typesetting, and eventually publishing, collecting and cataloging [11]. This presence is proof of the materiality of information production, and becomes a sign of the economies and paradigms of efficiency and profitability that are involved.

Computer scientists often view text through the eyes of their particular reading algorithm, and in the process voluntarily blind themselves to the work practices which have produced and maintain these "resources". Berners-Lee, in chastising his audience of web publishers to not only publish online, but to release "unadulterated" data belies a lack of imagination in considering how language is itself structured and a blindness to the need for more than additional technical standards to connect to existing publishing practices.

Hayles 4. Lieber's 5. Hayles 6. Both types of texts are worth considering preserving in libraries. The online environment has created its own hybrid form between text and library, which is key to understanding how digital text produces difference.

Historically, we have been treating texts as discrete units, that are distinguished by their material properties such as cover, binding, script. These characteristics establish them as either a book, a magazine, a diary, sheet music and so on. One book differs from another, books differ from magazines, printed matter differs from handwritten manuscripts. Each volume is a self-contained whole, further distinguished by descriptors such as title, author, date, publisher, and classification codes that allow it to be located and referred to.

The demarcation of a publication as a container of text works as a frame or boundary which organises the way it can be located and read. Researching a particular subject matter, the reader is carried along by classification schemes under which volumes are organised, by references inside texts, pointing to yet other volumes, and by tables of contents and indexes of subjects that are appended to texts, pointing to places within that volume.

So while their material properties separate texts into distinct objects, bibliographic information provides each object with a unique identifier, a unique address in the world of print culture. Such identifiable objects are further replicated and distributed across containers that we call libraries, where they can be accessed.

The online environment however, intervenes in this condition. It establishes shortcuts. Through search engine, digital texts can be searched for any text sequence, regardless of their distinct materiality and bibliographic specificity. This changes the way they function as a library, and the way its main object, the book, should be rethought. These are some of the lines along which online texts appear to produce difference. The first contrasts the distinct printed publication to the machine-readable text, the second the bibliographic information to the URL, and the third the library to the search engine.

The introduction of full-text search has created an environment in which all machine-readable online documents in reach are effectively treated as one single document. For any text-sequence to be locatable, it doesn't matter in which file format it appears, nor whether its interface is a database-powered website or mere directory listing.

As long as text can be extracted from a document, it is a container of text sequences which itself is a sequence in a 'book' of the web. Even though this is hardly news after almost two decades of Google Search ruling, little seems to have changed with respect to the forms and genres of writing. Loyal to standard forms of publishing, most writing still adheres to the principle of coherence, based on units such as book chapters, journal papers, newspaper articles, etc.

From Voor elk boek is een gebruiker: FS: Maar het gaat toch ook over de manier waarop jullie toegang bieden, de bibliotheek als interface? Online laten jullie dat nu over aan Google. Je kan doorheen al die collecties zoeken en dat is ook weer een stukje van die originele droom van Otlet en Vander Haeghen, het idee van een wereldbibliotheek.

Voor elk boek is er een gebruiker, de bibliotheek moet die maar gaan zoeken. Dat is een andere manier van lezen die zelfs Otlet zich niet had kunnen voorstellen. Ze zouden zot worden moesten ze dit weten. Still, the scope of textual forms appearing in search results, and thus a corpus of texts in which they are being brought into, is radically diversified: it may include discussion board comments, product reviews, private emails, weather information, spam etc.

Rather than being published in a traditional sense, all these texts are produced onto digital networks by mere typing, copying, OCR-ing, generated by machines, by sensors tracking movement, temperature, etc. Even though portions of these texts may come with human or non-human authors attached, authors have relatively little control over discourses their writing gets embedded in.

This is also where the ambiguity of copyright manifests itself. Libraries in this sense are not restricted to digitised versions of physical public or private libraries as we know them from history. Commercial search engines, intelligence agencies, and virtually all forms of online text collections can be thought of as libraries. The author's intentions of partaking in this or that discourse are confronted by discourse-conditioning operations of retrieval algorithms.

They are all libraries, each containing a single 'book' whose pages are URLs with timestamps and geostamps in the form of IP address. The decisions about who, to which sections and under which conditions is to be admitted are From Amateur Librarian - A Course informed by a mix of copyright laws, corporate agendas, in Critical Pedagogy: management hierarchies, and national security issues.

As books became more easily massVarious sets of these conditions that are at work in a produced, the commercial subscription libraries catering to the particular library, also redefine the notion of publishing better-off parts of society blossomed. This brought the class aspect of the Corporate journal repositories exploit publicly funded research by renting it only to libraries which can afford it; intelligence agencies are set to extract texts from any moving target, basically any networked device, apparently in public interest and away from the public eye; publiclyfunded libraries are being prevented by outdated copyright laws and bureaucracy from providing digitised content online; search engines create a sense of giving access to all public record online while only a few know what is excluded and how search results are ordered.

Their countertechniques for negotiating the publicness of publishing include self-archiving, open access, book liberation, leaking, whistleblowing, open source search algorithms and so on. Digitization and posting texts online are interventions in the procedures that make search possible.

Operating online collections of texts is as much about organising texts within libraries, as is placing them within books of the web. Originally written June in Prague, Brno and Vienna for a talk given at the Technopolitics seminar in Vienna on 16 June Revised 29 December in Bergen. That evening the sun was tender in drawing its shadows across the lines of his face.

The eyes gazed softly into a close middle distance, as if composing a line upon a translucent page hung in the middle of the air, the hands tapping out a stanza or two of music on legs covered by the brown folds of a towelling dressing gown. He had the air of someone who had seen something of great amazement but yet lacked the means to put it into language.

As I got to know the patient over the next few weeks I learned that this was not for the want of effort. Latin biological names, the magnificent table of elements, metric units of measurement, the nomenclature of celestial objects from clouds to planets, anatomical parts and medical conditions all had their own systems of naming beyond any specific tongue.

This was an attempt to bring reason into speech and record, but there were other means to do so when reality resisted these early measures. The dabbling, he reflected, had become a little more than that. He had subscribed to journals in the language, he wrote letters to colleagues and received them in return. A few words of world-speak remained readily on his tongue, words that he spat out regularly into the yellow-wallpapered lounge of the sanatorium with a disgust that was lugubriously palpable.

According to my records, and in piecing together the notes of previous doctors, there was something else however, something more profound that the language only hinted at. Just as the postal system did not require the adoption of any language in particular but had its P. More thrilling than the question of language indeed was that of the system of organisation upon which linguistic symbols are inscribed.

Suffice it to say that in its use I enjoyed the highest form of spiritual pleasure, and organisational efficiency, a profound flowering of intellect in which every thought moved between its enunciation, evidence, reference and articulation in a mellifluous flow of ideation and the gratification of curiosity. All were integrated into the system. As I gained the trust of the patient, there was a sense in which he estimated me as something of a junior collaborator, a clerk to his natural role as manager.

A lucky, if slightly doubtful, young man whom he might mentor into efficiency and a state of full access to information. For his world, there was not the corruption and tiredness of the old methods. Ideas moved faster in his mind than they might now across the world. That it can answer any question respecting any thought about which one has had an enquiry is but the smallest of its merits. More important is the fact that it continually calls attention to matters requiring such attention.

Much of his discourse was about the optimum means of arrangement of the system, there was an art to laying out the cards. As the patient further explained, to meet the objection that loose cards may easily be mislaid, cards may be tabbed with numbers from one to ten. When arranged in the drawer, these tabs proceed from left to right across the drawer and the absence of a single card can thus easily be detected. The cards are further arranged between coloured guide cards.

As an alternative to tabbed cards, signal flags may be used. Here, metal clips may be attached to the top end of the card and that stand out like guides. For use of the system in relation to dates of the month, the card is printed with the numbers 1 to 31 at the top.

The metal clip is placed as a signal to indicate the card is to receive attention on the specified day. There were numerous means of working the cards, special techniques for integrating them into any type of research or organisation, means by which indexes operating on indexes could open mines of information and expand the knowledge and capabilities of mankind. The advantages of the system are overwhelming. Cards, cut to the right mathematical degree of accuracy, arrayed readily in drawers, set in cabinets of standard sizes that may be added to at ease, may be apportioned out amongst any number of enquirers, all of whom may work on them independently and simultaneously.

The bound book, by contrast, may only be used by one person at a time and that must stay upon a shelf itself referred to by an index card system. I began to set up a structure of rows of mirrors on chains and pulleys and a set of levered and hinged mechanical arms to allow me to open the drawers and to privately consult my files from any location within the sanatorium. The clarity of the image is however so far too much effaced by the diffusion of light across the system. It must further be borne in mind that a system thus capable of indefinite expansion obviates the necessity for hampering a researcher with furniture or appliances of a larger size than are immediately required.

The continuous and orderly sequence of the cards may be extended further into the domain of furniture and to the conduct of business and daily life. Reasoning, reference and the order of ideas emerging as they embrace and articulate a chaotic world and then communicate amongst themselves turning the world in turn into something resembling the process of thought in an endless process of consulting, rephrasing, adding and sorting.

For the patient, ideas flowed like a force of life, oblivious to any unnatural limitation. Thought became, with the proper use of the system, part of the stream of life itself. Thought moved through the cards not simply at the superficial level of the movement of fingers and the mechanical sliding and bunching of cards, but at the most profound depths of the movement P. The organisational grace to be found in arrangement, classification and indexing still stirred the remnants of his nervous system until the last day.

Upon closer investigation, it has become evident that the mixed contents of the box make up one single document. Difficult to decipher due to messy handwriting, the manuscript poses further challenges to the reader because its fragments lack a preestablished order. Simply uploading high-quality facsimile images of the box contents here would not solve the problems of legibility and coherence.

As an intermediary solution, the editor has opted to introduce below a selection of scanned images and transcribed text from the found box. The transcript is intended to be read as a document sample, as well as an attempt at manuscript reconstruction, following the original in the author's hand as closely as possible: pencilled in words in the otherwise black ink text are transcribed in brackets, whereas curly braces signal erasures, peculiar marks or illegible parts on the index cards.

Despite shifts in handwriting styles, whereby letters sometimes appear extremely rushed and distorted in multiple idiosyncratic ways, the experts consulted unanimously declared that the manuscript was most likely authored by one and the same person. To date, the author remains unknown. Q I've been running with a word in my mouth, running with this burning untitled shape, and I just can't spit it out.

Spit it with phlegm from a balcony, kiss it in a mirror, brush it away one morning. I've been running with a word in my mouth, running Tunneling through my memory, my tongue begins burning again and so I recollect that the subject matter was an agonizing, unutterable obsession I needed to sort out most urgently. Back then I knew no better way than to keep bringing it up obliquely until it would chemically dissolve itself into my blood or evaporate through the pores of my skin.

An anti-incantation, a verbal overdose, a semantic dilution or reduction — for the first time, I was ready to inflict harm on words! All this unusual business must have carried on untroubled for some time until that Wed. Do you know how worrisome I find the new warning on the elevator doors?

Has there been an accident? Or is this simply an insurance disclaimer-trick? Oddly, not the faintest or most bored acknowledgment of my inquiry or presence came from across the desk. From where I was standing, I performed a quick check to see if any cables came out of the receptionist's ears. Channels unobstructed, no ear mufflers, no micro-devices.

Suspicion eliminated, I waved at him, emitted a few other sounds — all to no avail. My tunnel-visioned receptionist rolled his chair even closer to one of the many monitors under his hooked gaze, his visual field now narrowed to a very acute angle, sheltered by his high desk. How well I can still remember that at that exact moment I wished my face would turn into the widest, most expensive screen, with an imperative, hairy ticker at the bottom — h e y t o u c h m y s c r e e n m y m u s t a c h e s c r e e n e l e v a t o r t o u c h d o w n s c r e a m J That's one of the first red flags I remember in this situation here, really starting to come across more or less as a story : a feeling of being silenced by the building I inhabited.

In any case, t]hat day, I had been forewarned, but I failed to understand. As soon as I pushed the revolving door and left the building with a wry smile [on my face], the traffic outside wolfed down the warning. No longer do I feel pain on my tongue, only a tinge of volcanic ash as an aftermath of this defeat.

U I've been running with a word in my mouth, running with this burning untitled shape, and I just can't spit it out. It has become my tooth, rooted in my nervous system. My word of mouth. P Since then, my present has turned into an obscure hole, and I can't climb out of it. Most of the time, I'm sitting at the bottom of this narrow oubliette, teeth in knees, scribbling notes with my body in a terribly twisted position.

And when I'm not sitting, I'm forced to jump. Agonizing thoughts numb my limbs so much so that I feel my legs turning to stone. On some days I look up, terrified. I can't even make out whether the diffuse opening is egg- or squareshaped, but there's definitely a peculiar tic-tac sequence interspersed with neighs that my pricked ears are picking up on.

A sound umbrella, hovering somewhere up there, high above my imploded horizon. When I first noticed the sound, its circular cadence was soft and unobtrusive, almost protective, but now the more laps the clock-horse is running, the deeper the ticking and the neighing sounds are drilling into the hole. I picture this as an ever rotating metal worm inside a mincing machine. If I point my chin up, it bores through my throat! Following this not entirely bleak hypothesis, the oubliette I'm trapped in translates to an explainable state of blackout and all the ticking and the drilling could easily find their counterparts in the host of medical devices and their noise-making that support a comatose person.

After all, I am not made of black pencil or cardboard or paper. Despite this conclusion, the effort has left me sulking for hours without being able to scribble anything, overwhelmed by a sensation of being pinched and pulled sideways by dark particles inside the mineral dampness of this open tomb. What's the use of a vertical territory if you can't sniff it all the way up? I It's a humongous workplace, with a blue entrance door, cluttered with papers on both sides.

Left hand on the entrance door handle, the woman presses it and the three of them [guiding co-worker, faceless cameraman, scarlet-haired interviewer] squeeze themselves P. It's still her. Exploring leftovers around here can go up and down to horrifying and overwhelming sensorial levels The chances of finding us? Things are not lost; there are just different ways of finding them. A random stroll, a lucky find — be that on-line or off-line —, or a seductive word of mouth may be the entrance points into this experiential space, a manifesto for haphazardness, emotional intuitions, subversion of neural pathways, and non-productive attitudes.

A dadaist archive? Ours is definitely not an archive, there's no trace of pyramidal bureaucracy or taxonomy here, no nation state at its birth. Hence you won't find a reservoir for national or racial histories in here. Just imagine we changed perception scales, imagine a collective cut-up project that we, chaos workers, are bringing together without scissors or screwdrivers because all that gets through that blue door [and that is the only condition and standard] has already been shaped and fits in here.

Interview continues, but she forgets to mention that behind the blue door, in this very big box 1. Although it is the Institute's policy to accept paper donations only from private individuals, it occasionally makes exceptions and takes on leftovers from nonprofit organizations.

Each time this happens, an extended rite of passage follows so as to slightly delay and thereby ease the arrival of chaos bits: the most reliable chaos worker, Microexpressionist by metonymically selected feature, supervises the transfer of boxes at the very beginning of a long hallway [eyeballs moving left to right, head planted in an incredibly stiff neck]. Then, some fifty meters away, standing in front of the opened blue door, Puckered Lips welcomes newcomers into the chaos, his gestures those of a marshaller guiding a plane into a parking position.

But once the gray [? Everyone's free to grow limbs and choose temporal neighbors. L … seated cross-legged at the longest desk ever, Ragged Mane is randomly extracting photodocuments from the freshest chaos segment with a metallic extension of two of her fingers [instead of a pince-nez, she's the one to carry a pair of tweezers in a small pocket at all times].

Two mustaches, one hat, three pairs of glasses, some blurred figures in the background, and one most fascinating detail! Afterward, eyes split again and roll on the surface of the photograph like black-eyed peas on a kitchen table. On the outside it's spotted with straddled city topographies, inside, it's filled with a vernacular accumulation of anational dust without a trace of usable pasts. Early on, the commentator breaks into unwitty superlatives and platitudes, while the soundtrack unnecessarily dramatizes a 3D layering of the city structure.

Despite all this, the mood on the couch is patient, and viewers seem to absorb the vignetted film. Hence, reading the city acquires a literal dimension, skyscrapers echo clustered block letters on a line, and the pedestrian reader gets reduced to the size of a far-sighted microbe. A foreboding district for newlyweds?

In terms of real proportions, the size of a mailbox- or a drawer-apartment is comparable to that P. In fact, take out all that you need and once you feel relieved, exchange personas as if in an emergency situation. Then, behind vermillion curtains, replace pronouns at will. An intubated wish for character replacement? Pale, you might think, how pallid and lifeless they appear to be, but try to hold their gaze and notice how the interaction grows uncomfortable through persistence.

Blink, if you must. Move your weight from one leg to the other, and become aware of how unflinching their concentration remains, as if their eyes are lured into a screen. And as you're trying to draw attention to yourself by making ampler, pantomimic gestures, your hands touch the dark inner edges of the monitor you're [boxed] in. Look out and around again and again If I were in shape, attuned and wired to my perception angles and sensors, I could identify beyond precision that it is a cabal plotting I begin fearing.

Lately, it's all been going really awry. C Out of the blue, the clock-horse dislocated particles expand in size, circle in all directions like giant flies around a street lamp, and then in the most predictable fashion, they collide with my escapist reminiscences multiple times until I lose connection and the landscape above comes to a [menacing] stillness. Proportions have inverted, scraped surfaces have commingled and my U-shaped.

I can't find my hands! For information on document location or transcription method, kindly contact the editor. The quantity of similar words relates to the word-count of the texts, which means that each appearance has a different weight. Beyond the mere quantified use of a common language, this list follows the intuition that there is something more to elaborate in the discourse between these two utopians. One possible reading can be found in The Smart City, an essay that traces their encounter.

Prenons l'exemple des aparitions du mot esprit par exemple sont plus significatives dans Vers une Architecture P. Wordcount: Word-count: A good example is a scene from the video "From industrial heartland to the Internet age", published by The Mundaneum, , where the drawers of Mundaneum disambiguation: Otlet's Utopia morph into the servers of one of Google's data centres.

This approach is not limited to images: a recurring discourse that shapes some of the exhibitions taking place in the Mundaneum maintains that the dream of the Belgian utopian has been kept alive in the development of internetworked communications, and currently finds its spitiual successor in the products and services of Google. Even though there are many connections and similarities between the two endeavours, one has to acknowledge that Otlet was an internationalist, a socialist, an utopian, that his projects were not profit oriented, and most importantly, that he was living in the temporal and cultural context of modernism at the beginning of the 20th century.

The constructed identities and continuities that detach Otlet and the Mundaneum from a specific historical frame, ignore the different scientific, social and political milieus involved. It means that these narratives exclude the discording or disturbing elements that are inevitable when considering such a complex figure in its entirety.

This is not surprising, seeing the parties that are involved in the discourse: these types of instrumental identities and differences suit the rhetorical tone of Silicon Valley. Newly launched IT products for example, are often described as groundbreaking, innovative and different from anything seen before. In other situations, those products could be advertised exactly the same, as something else that already exists[1].

While novelty and difference surprise and amaze, sameness reassures and comforts. The samenessdifference duo fulfils a clear function: on the one hand, it suggests that technological advancements might alter the way we live dramatically, and we should be ready to give up our old-fashioned ideas about life and culture for the sake of innovation.

On the other hand, it proposes we should not be worried about change, and that society has always evolved through disruptions, undoubtedly for the better. For each questionable groundbreaking new invention, there is a previous one with the same ideal, potentially with just as many critics Great minds think alike, after all.

This sort of a-historical attitude pervades techno-capitalist milieus, creating a cartoonesque view of the past, punctuated by great men and great inventions, a sort of technological variant of Carlyle's Great Man Theory. This instrumental reading of the past is largely consistent with the theoretical ground on which the Californian Ideology[2] is based, in which the conception of history is pervaded by various strains of technological determinism from Marshall McLuhan to Alvin Toffler[3] and capitalist individualism in generic neoliberal terms, up to the fervent objectivism of Ayn Rand.

The appropriation of Paul Otlet's figure as Google's grandfather is a historical simplification, and the samenesses in this tale are not without fundament. Many concepts and ideals of documentation theories have reappeared in cybernetics and information theory, and are therefore present in the narrative of many IT corporations, as in Mountain View's case. With the intention of restoring a historical complexity, it might be more interesting to play the exactly the same game ourselves, rather than try to dispel the advertised continuum of the Google on paper.

Choosing to focus on other types of analogies in the story, we can maybe contribute a narrative that is more respectful to the complexity of the past, and more telling about the problems of the present. What followings are three such comparisons, which focus on three aspects of continuity between the documentation theories and archival experiments Otlet was involved in, and the cybernetic theories and practices that Google's capitalist enterprise is an exponent of.

The First one takes a look at the conditions of workers in information infrastructures, who are fundamental for these systems to work but often forgotten or displaced. Next, an account of the elements of distribution and control that appear both in the idea of a Reseau Mundaneum , and in the contemporary functioning of data centres, and the resulting interaction with other types of infrastructures.

Finally, there is a brief analysis of the two approaches to the 'organization of world's knowledge', which examines their regimes of truth and the issues that P. Hopefully these three short pieces can provide some additional ingredients for adulterating the sterile recipe of the Google-Otlet sameness.

In a drawing titled Laboratorium Mundaneum, Paul Otlet depicted his project as a massive factory, processing books and other documents into end products, rolled out by a UDC locomotive. In fact, just like a factory, Mundaneum was dependent on the bureaucratic and logistic modes of organization of labour developed for industrial production.

Looking at it and at other written and drawn sketches, one might ask: who made up the workforce of these factories? In this beautiful group picture, we notice that the workforce that kept the archival machine running was made up of women, but we do not know much about them. As in telephone switching systems or early software development[5], gender stereotypes and discrimination led to the appointment of female workers for repetitive tasks that required specific knowledge and precision.

Notwithstanding the incredible advancement of information technologies and the automation of innumerable tasks in collectiong, processing and distributing information, we can observe the same pattern today. All automatic repetitive tasks that technology should be able to do for us are still, one way or another, relying on human labour. And unlike the industrial worker who obtained recognition through political movements and struggles, the role of many cognitive workers is still hidden or under-represented.

Computational linguistics, neural networks, optical character recognition, all amazing machinic operations are still based on humans performing huge amounts of repetitive intellectual tasks from which software can learn, or which software can't do with the same efficiency.

Automation didn't really free us from labour, it just shifted the where, when and who of labour. Mechanical turks, content verifiers, annotators of all kinds The software we use requires a multitude of tasks which are invisible to us, but are still accomplished by humans. Who are they? When possible, work is outsourced to foreign English-speaking countries with lower wages, like India. In the western world it follows the usual pattern: female, lower income, ethnic minorities.

An interesting case of heteromated labour are the socalled Scanops[7], a set of Google workers who have a different type of badge and are isolated in a section of the Mountain View complex secluded from the rest of the workers through strict access permissions and fixed time schedules. Their work consists of scanning the pages of printed books for the Google Books database, a task that is still more convenient to do by hand especially in the case of rare or fragile books. The workers are mostly women and ethnic minorities, and there is no mention of them on the Google Books website or elsewhere; in fact the whole scanning process is kept secret.

Even though the secrecy that surrounds this type of labour can be justified by the need to protect trade secrets, it again conceals the human element in machine work. This is even more obvious when compared to other types of human workers in the project, such as designers and programmers, who are celebrated for their creativity and ingenuity.

However, here and there, evidence of the workforce shows up in the result of their labour. Photos of Google Books employee's hands sometimes mistakenly end up in the digital version of the book online[8]. Whether the tendency to hide the human presence is due to the unfulfilled wish for total automation, to avoid the bad publicity of low wages and precarious work, or to keep an aura of mystery around machines, remains unclear, both in the case of Google Books and the P.

Still, it is reassuring to know that the products hold traces of the work, that even with the progressive removal of human signs in automated processes, the workers' presence never disappears completely. This presence is proof of the materiality of information production, and becomes a sign in a webpage or the OCR scanned pages of a book, reflect a negligence to the processes and labor of writing, editing, design, layout, typesetting, and eventually publishing, collecting and [9] cataloging.

In , while Prime Minister Di Rupo was celebrating the beginning of the second phase of constructing the Saint Ghislain data centre, a few hundred kilometres away a very similar situation started to unroll. In the municipality of Eemsmond, in the Dutch province of Groningen, the local Groningen Sea Ports and NOM development were rumoured to have plans with another code named company, Saturn, to build a data centre in the small port of Eemshaven. A few months later, when it was revealed that Google was behind Saturn, Harm Post, director of Groningen Sea Ports, commented: "Ten years ago Eemshaven became the laughing stock of ports and industrial development in the Netherlands, a planning failure of the previous century.

And now Google is building a very large data centre here, which is 'pure advertisement' for Eemshaven and the data port. Yet another territory fortunately chosen by Google, just like Mons, but what are the selection criteria? For one thing, data centres need to interact with existing infrastructures and flows of various type.

Technically speaking, there are three prerequisites: being near a substantial source of electrical power the finished installation will consume twice as much as the whole city of Groningen ; being near a source of clean water, for the massive cooling demands; being near Internet infrastructure that can assure adequate connectivity.

There is also a whole set of non-technical elements, that we can sum up as the social, economical and political climate, which proved favourable both in Mons and Eemshaven. The push behind constructing new sites in new locations, rather expanding existing ones, is partly due to the rapid growth of the importance of Software as a service, so-called cloud computing, which is the rental of computational power from a central provider.

With the rise of the SaaS paradigm the geographical and topological placement of data centres becomes of strategic importance to achieve lower latencies and more stable service. This includes buying leftover fibre networks[11], entering the business of underwater sea cables[12] and building new data centres, including the ones in Mons and Eemshaven. The spread of data centres around the world, along the main network cables across continents, represents a new phase in the diagram of the Internet.

This should not be confused with the idea of decentralization that was a cornerstone value in the early stages of interconnected networks. Paradoxically, it is now the growing centralization of all kind of operations in specific buildings, that is fostering their distribution. The event was organized by Association with the sponsorship of the Municipality of Macerata Campania. The event was co-organized by the "Comitato Carnevale di Montemarano" and the "Comitato per la promozione del patrimonio immateriale ICHNet " with the sponsorship of the "Istituto Centrale per la Demoetnoantropologia" of the Italian Ministry of Culture.

Establishment of the Study Centre "Historia Loci" in order to fulfil safeguarding activities for the intangible cultural heritage of Macerata Campania through research, studies, and events. Young people are invited to join in the practice of playing the various typical musical instruments used while elder people participate in the transmission of techniques and patterns of playing and singing.

The about 1. In order to fulfil the safeguarding activities for the intangible cultural heritage of Macerata Campania, the Association collaborates with other Associations, Committees, Institutions and Foundations, of the territory such as the "Associazione Radici" of Marcianise, the "Comitato Carnevale di Montemarano" of Montemarano, the Province of Caserta, the Municipality of Macerata Campania.

In order to strenghthen the knowledge of its local tradition and specific percussion techniques, it also collaborates with organizations from other parts of Italy including the "Comitato per la promozione del patrimonio immateriale ICHNet - Intangible Cultural Heritage Network " and the "Istituto Centrale per la Demoetnoantropologia" of the Italian Ministry of Culture.

The Union helps to learn and form the public opinion about carpet-making art, legal rug products, and it also helps the stimulating of the raising of the creative work mastery of the physical persons, popularization of quality and special signs of our national culture and handicrafts to determine various examples of carpets and also helps theirs popularization and demonstation in Azerbaijan and the world.

The NGO collaborates with local and international organizations of carpet-making art, including museums and also with legal and physical persons, as well as the state agencies. The Unity organizes different trainings and workshops, round tables and meetings, exhibitions, charitable fundraising, conferences, other cultural and other mass measures; dissiminates information about purposes and activities, publishes print materials. For preservation of a variety of the Azerbaijan carpet, weaver's communities together with the Association «The World of carpet» and Azerbaijani Carpetmakers' Union collect information about local features of carpets, popularisation of products of local weavers through exhibitions-sales, organising trainings.

So, in August , in Baku, the Azerbaijani Carpetmakers' Union uniting all carpet communities of the country and the Association «World of Carpet» organised the round table which was devoted to problems of activization of manufacture of pileless carpets in Azerbaijan. The Carpetmakers' Union organises regular trainings in technique of pileless carpets at the the Museum of the Azerbaijan carpet. Communities of carpet weavers demonstrate the works at various exhibitions. So, in the national competition-festival of carpets in various zones of the country was organised.

In , works of national weavers were shown in one of the Days of the Azerbaijan culture in Basel. Besides, the following national laws were adopted: in the Law on import-export of cultural objects, in - the Law about folklore, in - ratification of the Convention of UNESCO on Protection of intangible Cultural heritage. In , , and , three international symposiums of the Azerbaijan carpet were organised in Azerbaijan. In 4th symposium devoted to the anniversary of Ljatif Kerimov took place in UNESCO headquarters in Paris where the exhibition of artists works also was organised.

Among large publications of carpet protection for last decade: Roya Tagieva «The Azerbaijan carpet» , presentation of which has taken place in in Louvre Museum, Azadi-Kerimov-Tsollinger «The Azerbaijan Caucasian carpets» , and the two-volume book «The Azerbaijan carpet» , devoted to L.

Kerimov and Materials of 4th symposium about the Azerbaijan carpet. Many last projects have been connected with efforts on revival of carpet art. In 14th of September, has been spent the round table and a master class "Not varying values of varying time" with the assistance of carpet — wavers, artists on carpets, collectors and businessmen, and also fans of carpet art.

It has been shown a collection of clothes with use of carpet patterns of young designer Minary Kulieva, works of the master on embroidery art with use of a carpet thread of Shahla Askerova, etc. On 17th of November, , on the day of birth of the great artist on carpets, masters, scientific Ljatif Kerimov has been opened the exhibition of professionals and masters is national-applied art "The art Bridge, the leader from the past in the future".

On 18th of May, has opened the exhibition of tapestries "Tapestries: yesterday and today", where have exposed the works of masters of Non-governmental organisation. On 10th of May, has been opened the exhibition of the Union's member Mr. In March, has been opened the exhibition of masters on national-applied art was devoted to a holiday of Novruz. Since the Carpetmakers' Union has started to carry on negotiations with similar international communities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, in Russian Federations and in Islamic Republic of Iran.

Result of negotiations was the opening of an exhibition of masters of people-applied art of Uzbekistan which has been opened together with "Fund-Forum of culture and art of Uzbekistan", Associations of Antiquaries of Uzbekistan "Meros" which will proceed in the autumn opening of an exhibition of the Azerbaijan masters in Tashkent, also opening of an exhibition of carpets on the basis of pictures of the National artist of Azerbaijan and Russia Tahir Salahov.

In this way the Union supports to enrich cultural variety, protect non-material cultural heritage especially among young generation. It carries out monitorings for the learning cause and effect in the material and technical direction, prepare the activity program in the direction of restoration of the technologies defining on the basis of getting results of the sensible and forgotten kinds of the carpet-making art.

In in Guba, Khachmaz, Gusar, Shabran, Siyazan the Union carried out the survey about modern situation of the carpet-making art, in in the result of analysis of the surveys compile the plan of monitoring and in Guba unity have been organized the exhibition from the works of the carpet-makers and masters of applied art. In there were surveys about carpet-making art in the west zone of Azerbaijan. The same problem is connect with various kinds of art embroideries. It is about the propaganda the ancient kinds and names of embroideries art among the young generation.

Once in a month the Union organize the meetings with craftsmans in the various handicrafts of people-applied art and investigate their problems. Carrying out the work among different adults , the Union learns their interests to various kinds of applied art and organize different groups. Educational activities: At the museum but also in schools. We are holding courses for youths and adults who want to learn, and also have two university courses at the museum together with the Gotland University.

Festival: Since , every year we have had a storytelling festival, which is local, national and international. At the festival we host a Nordic youth camp for the next generation of storytellers. We are trying to highlight different kind of storytelling traditions, we highlight the romany tradition. This has been done by; road signs, maps, story cabinets at the actual place the cabinets consist of a story that the visitor can read in Swedish, English or German, a painting which is connected to the story , an app you can listen to the story in your phone instead of reading if you like geocaching, performances, activities and excursions.

Every summer we do a summer program in The Land of Legends, with performances open for the public. Performing arts: Storytelling is a performing art, we do plenty storytelling from stages, at theathers and festivals. Book publishing: Several books have been published with the old tales but also with the new stories that we have collected today. Minority groups — we have highlighted storytelling traditions belonging to groups that unfortunately have been overlooked in history, for example Romany and Sami.

Together we have done many projects, and helped them at several places to highlight their legends and stories connected to places where they operate. NGO for traditional handicraft — connected to the making of handicraft are several stories and tales. We work together with the traditional handicraft association to bring forward these stories. We co-operate around storytelling, doing performances at the museums.

Main objectives of the Organization: 1. Rediscovery and promotion of the intellectual and traditional knowledge of the Igbos relating to its traditional medical knowledge and practices; 2. Protection of the masquerade and oracular prophetic practices of the Igbos, Wawa people as they extend in Nigeria, Ghana, Cote d'lvoire and Senegal; 3. Defense and sustenance of the natural and customary practices of the indigenous African people under the context of foreign religion and globalization which exterminate the population's social and economic existence; 4.

Sensitization of the intellectual class in Africa on the issues that border on African intellectual property and folklore; 5. Research and publications on African intellectual and folklore history and issues by collating end reports of conferences and workshops. Poverty reduction programs to ensure environmental and economic sustainability for the Wawas in 19boland spread through the four West African states; 7.

Designing relevant programs that will impact positively and contextualize the millennium development goals in the lives and customs of the Wawas in 19boland, especially those in tension soaked Niger delta of Nigeria. Poverty reduction programs to ensure environmental and economic sustainability for the Wawas in Igboland spread through the four West African states; 7. Designing relevant programs that will impact positively and contextualize the millennium development goals in the lives and customs of the Wawas in Igboland, especially those in tension soaked Niger delta of Nigeria.

Actividades: 1. We have embarked upon documentation and profiling of the intellectual properties and folklore of the Wawa people of West Africa with a view to seeking legislative and copyright protection of these activities, previously undocumented; 2. Publication of well researched articles and books on Wawa indigenous people that will itemize the various cultural properties and rights of the people to sensitize the world and national governments on the areas which are threatened with distinction.

Organizing workshops and attending global fora of world indigenous peoples to present the perceived areas of injustice and marginalization which have threatened them with extinction and permanent dislocation in the geography of their present locations in West Africa. Collaboration with all other individuals and organizations which promote and defend the intellectual property and folklore of indigenous people worldwide with a view to exchanging information and visits from other parts of the world; 5.

Making representation to governments in the four West African countries to recognize and adopt best practices and conventions on world indigenous intellectual rights and properties. Policy advocacy on curriculum change, legal reform and cultural promotion of the intellectual property of the Wawas and Igbos in West Africa.

Actividades: Since its founding in , CTMD has produced over major presentations including concerts, festivals, tours, CD and fim series, and lectures. Materials gathered by CTMD staff, folklorists, ethnomusicologists and community cultural sepcialists are the basis for subsequent articistic presentations and educational programming.

The collection includes audio and video recordings, photographic documentation and related ephemera on CTMD's presentations and programs. A monthly eNewsletter provides news, events and informatin about NY's traditional music and dance scene. While CCIs are deeply grassroots and NY-based, they produce ripples that can extend nationally and even internationally.

In the s, CTMD's project to document and present Jewish klezmer music helped spark a workd-wide revival. In the s, CTMD helped form the renowned all-women's ensemble Cherish the Ladies which ispired huge interest amongs women across North America ane even Ireland in performing Irish music previsously a male-dominated activity.

Il met sur pied des expositions en lien avec ses collections. La mission du Centre touche les volets de la recherche, de la conservation et de la formation, de la diffusion et de la mise en valeur du patrimoine vivant. However, from it increased her activities to encompass the conservation of both movable, immovable and intangible heritage assets. CHDA is mandated to Organize, co-ordinate and develop viable projects and activities for heritage and museum development in Africa, such as the post-graduate diploma course in the care and management of heritage and museum collections in sub-Saharan Africa, in collaboration with the University of Nairobi and University College London, and the Africa program.

In many programs, CHDA invites expert resource persons and also teaching assistants, who use the opportunity to understudy the expert trainer on their way to becoming expert trainers in their own right. These professionals, many of who went on and acquired further qualifications, became part of the CHDA network of heritage professionals, a pool of experts that CHDA draws on for its professional training needs, as resource persons, facilitators and program coordinators in case of need.

It is important to note that the network has experts in most of the different aspects of heritage management, including tangible, intangible, movable and immovable heritage. They also have loyalty and commitment to CHDA, having come through it in the development of their professional careers.

A few of the programs CHDA has undertaken in the past and which had a direct bearing on intangible heritage management included: 1. Endangered Heritage Assets Program EHAP This program was undertaken by CHDA in successfully sought to identify, document and disseminate the tangible and intangible cultural heritage of the Mijikenda people of the Kenyan coast, especially those that are threatened with extinction.

The three-year en-compass project The project began in October and is on-going. It brought together participants from China, England, Guyana, and Kenya with the remit for Anglophone Africa The program looked at issues related to the dangers and challenges faced in the protection of intangible and tangible cultural heritage in all participating countries. The program activities also included a workshop to scope and audit key tangible and intangible heritage resources, including cultural expressions, products and services in each partner country.

These in-country workshops provided a focus and momentum for long-term on-going scoping and auditing activities post training. However, the information and material gathered through the scoping exercise was also fed onto a database, used to create the online and published catalogues- this process is still on-going. The project also intends to create an inventory of cultural heritage resources Tangible and Intangible , including those at risk in the short-term from the scoping exercise undertaken in each of the three partner countries.

The catalogue of cultural heritage assets both tangible and intangible collected will be researched and used to design and develop a travelling exhibition that will go around all the participating countries. This course had a whole unit dedicated to "Indigenous knowledge systems and community involvement", which is basically training in intangible heritage of communities. Africa Courses CHDA hosted the 3-month Africa courses for , , , , and One of the issues Africa program addressed was the issue of insufficient human resources and capacity for management, conservation, and maintenance of immovable heritage properties on the continent, using traditional methods and materials.

This means that traditional methods, knowledge and skills, which are basically intangible heritage assets, were being mainstreamed in the program, in a participatory approach involving local communities in the conservation planning and management processes. For example, the field projects aimed to establish self-confidence within the local custodians and to enhance their recognition as efficient professionals.

The project also worked to integrate traditional techniques in conservation of monuments resulting not only in monuments that are responsive to local environments, but also to the sustenance and promotion of traditional skills - the intangible heritage within the local communities.

The aims of the course was to produce professionals who can record Intangible Heritage appropriately and to enable trainees effectively apply methodologies, standards, and equipment for recording Intangible Heritage. The main course objective was to enable participants to record Intangible Heritage using digital and video cameras in line with laid down standards and procedures as provided in the course.

For this matter, community participation has always been incorporated into the programs CHDA offers its participants - either by making it part of the teaching learning content or by inviting community members as participants in training programs to exchange issues with professionals, learn from and teach them and to create networks for future exchange. In the last training that CHDA held in Zimbabwe on Risk Preparedness for Heritage properties between 6th and 18th May for example, two community members were invited as participants to help build an understanding among professionals on the traditional approaches to risk management of the Great Zimbabwe, as well as to help us understand the community needs and expectations from the professionals in their professional work of management and conservation.

The roots of the CSC lie in an extensive research programme Katholieke Universtiteit Leuven on the history and the current situation of traditional games in Flanders the Dutch speaking part of Belgium , started by prof. R Renson in The unexpected richness and variety of traditional games lead to the foundation of the CSC in order to promote this endangered sporting heritage and to get people acquainted again with the traditional games.

The mission of the CSC states that the CSC must be a centre of expertise in safeguarding the intangible heritage of the traditional and modern movement culture in vivo and in situ via identification, documentation, research, protection, handing down, revitalizing … on a national and international level.

Gradually the CSC broadened its scope to a European and even a worldwide scale. On a European level the CSC carried out a lot of demonstrations of traditional games abroad and invited traditional games practitioners from many countries to Belgium for demonstrations and exchanges. The activities worldwide concern mainly research, publications, the gathering of documentation and exchange of information. From onwards, the CSC committed itself, together with Sportmuseum Vlaanderen Sports Museum Flanders to realise the Sportimonium-project, a museum about the sports history of Flanders in its national and international context.

Especially as traditional games are concerned, both the tangible artefacts and intangible loan service, games park —see further aspect of the sporting heritage is taken into account. Actividades: The Centre for Sport Culture CSC has launched a variety of initiatives for safeguarding the tangible and intangible heritage of traditional games and sports: Research - In collaboration with the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, the CSC carries out research on traditional games inventory, evolution, organisational structure,..

For enquiries the centre calls upon the traditional sports federations for collaboration. Documentation centre and library open to the general public - ca. This collection has been handed over to the Sportimonium in In this museum one of the sections is entirely dedicated to traditional games worldwide. Therefore the visitors can get acquainted with the skills of a variety of traditional games which are still practised locally in Flanders. As the future teachers and sport administrators they are invited to the Sportimonium in order to sensitize them and to get them acquainted with traditional games.

Counselling and support - supporting festivals organized by the traditional games players - helping clubs, federation and their individual members in research matters - counselling associations or federations for candidatures for the Belgian list of elements of intangible heritage - participation in governmental assessment committees cultural matters - collaboration with Unesco project on traditional games , platform for traditional games worldwide The staff of the CSC has almost 30 years experience in safeguarding traditional games.

The staff members 3 have university degrees and have followed in the course of years many courses related to the safeguarding of intangible heritage. The CSC is in close contact with other organisations in the country taking care of popular culture in order to exchange experience. The same goes for engagement in the international network of the European Association for Traditional Sports and Games, of which the CSC has been among the pioneers.

Due to these constant contacts, on the one hand with the practitioners of traditional games and at the other hand with professionals working in the fields of culture, sport and tourism the personnel of the CSC has acquainted its competences. The CSC has been instrumental in helping the clubs to get in contact with each other and to found if appropriate federations of their own.

This resulted in in the foundation of a confederation for traditional games Vlaamse Traditionele Sporten vzw, VlaS with the CSC as one of the founding members. This confederation grew steadily from to The CSC is member of the board of directors of VlaS and vice versa, firstly in order to be well informed about each other activities and initiatives, secondly to collaborate where appropriate. While constructing the traditional games park, there has been close cooperation with practitioners in testing and adapting the facilities in full respect with the games while using — if possible - modern materials.

One of the CSC objectives is to make the bearers of the intangible heritage, i. This must lead to an enhanced self-consciousness towards heritage in order to hand it down and to defend it. Important for the CSC remains, furthermore, exchange and collaboration with other organisations experienced in the domain of popular culture and in safeguarding intangible heritage. At the National reviews our jury of specialists meets more than collectives, evaluates their qualities and their art.

The Section communicates with those groups as to organize participation for them in different Festivals and Folklore events all over the world. We assist concerts and presentations of those ensembles. For better communication with all those collectives from different parts in Bulgaria the section collaborates with 24 choreographers who are responsible for particular regions of the country. Meetings with those coordinators are organized frequently and any needed and important information is given to them.

More than choreographers from the country take part in the annually organized seminars of the choreographers in Bulgaria. At those events are discussed different problems related with the folklore and its popularization.

In many of our activities we co-operate with the Ministry of Culture, with the Union of the cultural clubs in Bulgaria, and with different organizations working in the cultural domain. During the organization of the Festivals in Sofia and Veliko Tarnovo we co-operate with a lot of people who have experience in the folklore sphere in order to choose groups of a great quality fot the Festivals and to present them our traditions in best way.

It benefits from the cross-disciplinary exchange of its members — architects, archaeologists, art historians, engineers, historians, planners, who foster improved heritage conservation standards and techniques for all forms of cultural properties: buildings, historic towns, cultural landscapes, archaeological sites, sites having intangible values, etc.

It also runs 28 specialised International Scientific Committees on a variety of subjects. One of these is the International Committee on Intangible Cultural Heritage which, within the mandate of ICOMOS as an organisation concerned with the conservation of monuments and sites, specialises in the protection of sites that have intangible values and in so doing the conservation of the intangible that gives value to certain monuments and sites.

ICOMOS has six principal objectives: To bring together conservation specialists from around the world and serve as a forum for professional dialogue and exchange; To collect, evaluate and diffuse information on conservation principles, techniques and policies; To co-operate with national and international authorities on the establishment of documentation centres specialising in conservation; To work for the adoption and implementation of international conventions on the conservation and enhancement of architectural heritage; To participate in the organisation of training programs for conservation specialists on a world wide scale; To put the expertise of qualified professionals and specialists at the service of the international community.

ICOMOS members, who are specialists in the management of sites with intangible cultural heritage associations, were part of their national delegations in the drafting process of the ICH Convention. The core business of ICOMOS is the conservation of monuments and sites and the development of standards of professional practice and networks. Our focus is how appropriate and adequate protection of sites can strengthen intangible heritage practices; and how intangible values such as traditional knowledge systems, crafts and practices contribute to the sustainability of cultural places and landscapes.

Key activities in this area: Debate around ICH and its associations with monuments and sites. ICH features strongly in regards to the strengthening of traditional practices and the benefits for sustainability and indigenous practices associated with cultural landscapes. Development of national and international standards of professional intangible cultural heritage practice in relation to sites and landscapes.

The establishment of a network of specialists in ICH values. Members are actively involved in research and documentation activities under the Convention; they share expertise and activate to promote the convention. UK, Australia and Mexico. Our members actively participate in national and international conferences and publish extensively on this subject through scholarly books and peer reviewed journals.

Perpetuation and transmission of the ICH aspects of a site. Strengthening of ICH practices. Identification of conservation measures needed on a site to ensure continuation of associated cultural practices Recognition and strengthening of traditional land management systems as a means of conserving a site and associated ICH practices.

Training of community members in conventional heritage conservation practice, tourism management, etc. ICOMOS members routinely work with issues associated with community heritage and international standards and governance systems for conservation of heritage, both tangible and intangible.

Tsenka Ivanova and Dr. Svetlozar Vlaykov - Intern. Svetlozar Vlaykov — Intern. Les festivals invitent et font la promotion des peuples minoritaires et autochtones. Le CQPV dispense de plus des formations professionnelles relatives aux arts traditionnels. Des cahiers de stage sont ensuite produits pour les participants. Assistance technique aux Administrations.

Projets pilotes. Promotion et diffusion des informations relatives au Patrimoine Gastronomique traditionnel, y compris site web en construction. The CCCC was created in and its main purposes, as stablished in its by-laws, are: Promote human towers and its values, spread its knowledge, and to stimulate research on the topic, while looking after its good image and safeguarding. Manage and defend the affiliates' common interests and goods.

CCCC is currently in charge to hire insurance policies for all the 'colles'. Represent the human towers collective before the administrations, media, etc. Promote good practices on human towers, especially on safety. Promote good understanding among its affiliates. As you can see, the organization's first aim deals directly with the safeguarding of this cultural intangible heritage element. Actividades: Some of the activities the CCCC has developed in recent years that deal with intangible cultural heritage safeguarding are: Promotion: The CCCC has two websites that provide information regarding human towers.

The first one www. The second one www. Both websites also explain what the Intangible Heritage Convention from Unesco is. Documentation: The www. New data is added each weekend, as new performances take place. Catalan Human Towers", whose aim is to sanction official products and goods which give part of its profits to the "colles castelleres".

Promotion: The CCCC has developed several actions aimed to promote human towers among concrete collectives, such as immigrant population or children through schools. The last of these actions is an activity that promotes both human towers and reading through libraries. The first one is dedicated to safety and technical issues regarding human towers. The second one deals with legal, financial and organizational matters. The CCCC has also been responsible to develop several studies that have allowed human towers to become a safer activity, including the development of a special helmet used by children climbing on the towers.

Revitalization: As a federation that gathers all the "colles", the CCCC also works as a forum where all the different groups can debate and decide jointly the future path for the element. Revitalization: The CCCC offers help to new "colles" when they are born, while at the same time checking that these new groups respect the human towers tradition and established values.

Preservation, protection and revitalization: The CCCC boosted in the document titled "The Social Values of Human Towers", approved by all members, in which the "colles" ratified their compromise with values such as amateurism, a sustainable and responsible management, inner pluralism and democratic functioning.

Most of these actions can be checked through our websites. This means that it is made up of groups that work the intangible cultural heritage. Again, as stated before, the board of directors itself is made up of intangible cultural heritage practitioners. At the same time, it is alas important to acknowledge that CCCC works democratically. Key decisions have to be taken by the General Assembly, where every group is represented. The board of directors is also voted by the General Assembly.

All this means that the organization's tradition is to build consensus and negotiate between its members to find a position where everyone or at least a huge majority feels comfortable. Although safeguarding intangible cultural heritage is not CRIA's primary objective, a majority of its researchers working mostly, but not only, within two thematic lines: "Culture: Practices, Politics, Displays" and "Power, Knowledge, Mediations" deal directly or indirectly with this issue.

They explore it from a theoretical and analytical standpoint, and they resort to it as a framework for applied research and for intervention on the field. Their ethnographic activity provides the empirical basis and the cultural knowledge that are necessary for an objective assessment of the relevance, interest, urgency, viability and sustainability of safeguarding initiatives. Additional information: CRIA contributes in direct and indirect ways to safeguard Intangible Cultural Heritage lCH through the activities of its researchers, namely through: Theoretical and reflexive examinations of the notion of ICH, thus contributing to its conceptual understanding and elucidation.

The organization of conferences and public lectures which allow for the diffusion of this knowledge to society in general and particularly to cultural agents and mediators. Consuiting activities requested by organizations and institutions dedicated to the survey, study and promotion of ICH. Actividades: The competence and expertise of CRIA researchers in the field of intangible cultural heritage come from their academic background as anthropologists and from the intense ethnographic activity that is inherent to their research.

The scope of their research encompasses rural and urban settings. As a result of their lengthy presence in the field, they come to gain a deep cultural intimacy with the communities and groups they study and whose life they share. They are therefore often seen by these as valid contributors and partners in actions aimed at the safeguarding of local cultural heritage.

Students can be associate members. Many CRIA researchers conceive of their research as visual anthropology among whom chiefly Catarina Alves Costa, an internationally renowned documentary film-maker. CRIA members also necessarily carry out an epistemological and methodological reflection in such fields as museum studies, tourism, conservation, heritage: Maria Cardeira da Silva, Anthony Shelton, Nuno Additional information: The competence and expertise of CRIA's researchers in the field of ICH come from their academie background as anthropologists and from the intense ethnographic activity inherent to their research, carried out both in rural and urban settings, in Portugal and abroad.

As a result of their lengthy presence in the field, anthropologists come to gain a deep cultural intimacy with the communities and groups they study and whose Iife they share. Therefore, they are often seen by the latter as valid contributors and partners in actions aimed at the safeguard of local cultural heritage.

Our researchers have worked on themes that are relevant for the promotion and protection of ICH and their work stimulated processes that contributed to actions regarding the safeguard and revitalization of cultural heritage by the communities involved. Paulo Raposo conducted a funded research project on the processes of folk culture objectification in Portugal which has led to a privileged relationship with local communities and cultural organizations in Northern Portugal, resulting in his being requested to provide information and support to the conception and establishment of an on-site local museum in Podence.

Jean-Yves Durand is involved in an international network France, Italy, Spain, Canada, Mexico dedicated to the investigation and promotion of handierafts and was recently appointed Director of the Museu da Terra de Miranda Portugal , where he has launched a study of homing-pigeons races, a controversial local tradition. As a result of this project, the anthropologist was invited to work as a consultant for the Mapping of Azorean-Based Culture, promoted by a research center in Santa Catarina, Brazil, an initiative involving thousands of activists representing the communities of Azorean-based culture in that state.

Leal is currently sinee a member of the Scientific Board of the Azorean Communities Portal, which aims at spreading the Azorean culture along the diaspora. He is also a member sinee of the network of activists and academies who have been organizing the International Congresses on the Holy Spirit , 3rd edition. Emllia Margarida Marques has worked for the township of Marinha Grande Portugal creating an archive and documentation database now available at the local public historical archive - also created in part as a result of the project.

The anthropologist was further invited by the municipality to conduct two studies on the local glass industry, published during the commemorations of its th anniversary. This project is intended to provide a better understanding of the relationship between a local human populations, b other animais, namely chimpanzees, c the forests surrounding these African villages. It contributes to the development of a national strategy for the preservation of the species, taking into account the needs of the local human population.

Studies about the cultural perceptions of animals in general and chimpanzees in particular were undertaken by the researchers. The results have been incorporated in the discourse of tourism guidebooks, thus encouraging its conservation. Claudia Sousa collaborated in the training of rangers of IBAP Institute for Biodiversity and Protected Areas, Guinea-Bissau and eco-guides tour guides in a project of the NGO AD - Action for Development , on issues related to the behavior and ecology of primate species in the country, the techniques used for monitoring these species and special care that people should have when they move into the forest.

Research: title; coordinator; funding; date -- Portuguese Castles aboard II. Additional information: CRIA's anthropologists partake in projects always implying close and intense relationships with communities and groups based on mutual respect: deontology of ethnography-making requires in all cases the researchers' respect for the individuals, groups and institutions they work with.

Results were published and allowed for the definition of norms of certification, as forgeries of this product had started to be imported, jeopardizing the income of hundreds of women who had gained social autonomy thanks to their work. Risks of fossilization and reification of the product were avoided by introducing a specific certification category for "Innovations".

Durand also co-organized, with alocal ecomuseum, an international conference on "Animal fights". The controversial tradition of bull-baiting and, on alesser scale, of cockfighting is strong in a small region of Northern Portugal. Observing the dynamics of this controversy, the anthropologist can act as a go-between. Appointed Director of a local museum, Durand launched a study on homing-pigeons races which raise similar issues.

Clara Saraiva coordinated a multidisciplinary team working in Aldeia da Luz, a rural community in Portugal forced to abandon their old village to relocate when a government-sponsored dam was built which would leave their homes underwater. Fieldwork with the population was done to create an ethnographic record of the community before relocation and to document their resettiement not far away.

Results were used to form the local museum, generating a living memory of the village and its recreation. Leal's observation and reflection about the transformation undergone by these cultural practices when they shift from the original context to migratory ones, and the impact of that transformation back on the Islands, is relevant to the documentation and registry of this process.

Et toutes les rencontres avec d'autres formes d'expressions. Les liens se font avec un professeur responsable. Nous ne pouvons plus, faute de moyens, assurer cette mission. Establish and mantain infrastructure and facilities for preservation and development of cultural heritage and youth talents and skills development. Develop talents and skills of the youth for self - reliance. Additional information: The Memorandum and articles of association provide eight general objectives.

Each objective can be operationalised by a big programme. This was intended to give unlimited scope and alternative programme areas but impossible to be all implemented. Culture become the instrument of the empowerment of the youth to build confidence and creativity for self-reliance. Skills and talents are developed in cultural and indigenous expression, like music, dance, drama and folklore.

Youths and women entrepreneurial skills were developed in safeguarding, preservation and promotion of indigenous knowledge and entreprises. Cultural values and indigenous knowledge was re-claimed to promote leadership and society organisation. Thus positive traditions, customs and philosophy in proverbs and sayings are used to promote good leadership practices.

The target for partnership and networking are cultural clubs and associations in the target society who are also targets for membership and beneficiaries to the programme. At external level, the target for partnership are organizations that support culture or cultural approach to development, protection and promotion of indigenous or traditional knowledge.

Hence the organisations with which we have networking and partnership relationship include -Cross Cultural Foundation of Uganda which documents and publishes our innovative cultural approaches. This is the ministry incharge of culture and heritage. This objective gave raise to the overall theme of the organisation as a culture and development which is operationalised into an overall cultural approach to development.

It should be however noted that the organisation is in need of rephase the objectives in the memorandum and articles of association to be directed to this theme. Actividades: Engabu Za Tooro researches, documents and reproduces the traditional folklore and promote it to modern stage through community perfomances, festivals and competitions.

Engabu Za Tooro identifies critical indigenous knowledge in the in the traditions revitalises it and reconstructs it into modern social development using music, publications and media. Engabu Za Tooro develops cultural enterprises and services and professionalises service providers through training and market development. Engabu Za Tooro collects and preserves traditional materials into community museum. Engabu Za Tooro mobilises, trains and coordinates cultural consultants and practioners who constitutes its membership, personnel and programme beneficiaries.

It also benefits from international training workshops and exposure as a result of its accreditation to World Intellectual Property organisation WIPO intergovernmental committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional knowledge and folklore accreditation certificate attached. Additional information: Engabu Za Tooro currently has two major programme areas 1. Youth Talent Development This programme mobilises and trains the youth to develop their talents and skills in their indigenous cultural expression in perfoming art and folklore so the programme researches, documents, publishes and promotes peoples cultural heritage in form of folklore and music.

The programme re-invests the people's indigenous wisdom in proverbs, sayings and oral traditions, promote and intergrate it in the mainstream development thought and practice. This old wisdom is promoted by research and re-producing it in music, dance which is popularised through festivals and competitions.

Art pieces produced around the old traditions of indigenous communities has won national and international music and video awards. The Cultural Troupe which packages this traditional wisdom perfoms at national and international venues and events. Culture in Development Programme This programme researches, documents and promotes indigenous knowledge in production. Thus it promotes cultural enterprises and services and uses traditional knowledge in peoples traditions to inspire and stimulate economic activity.

Specific activities involve research, training and market development of indigenous enterprises and collection and preservation od cultural materiall in community museum. Koogere women empowerment project which uses the old tradition of a heroine to stimulate grasroot women participation has been recorgnised as a model case study in re-constructing people's traditions in today's development practice. The organisation currently is using experience of participating in the WIPO's sessions of Intergovernmental committee on intellectual property and genetic resources traditional knowledge and folklore to develop a programme of protection of traditional knowledge through research and documentation.

The organisation is networking with traditional knowledge digital library of India and national indigenous knowledge systems office South Africa to develop the programme of protection of indigenous knowledge. Yes, we are also registered with the NGO board. The certificate is attached. These certificates are renewed periodically and in most cases processes of renewal are delayed.

The organisation is also finalising a process of entering a amemorandum of understanding for partnership with government through the Uganda ministry in charge of culture i. The organisation links and facilitates cultural groups to exhibition festival and training oppotunities. The organisation holds an annual cultural festival called "Koogere Week" where heritage practitioners come together to compete, debate, exhibit, demonstrate and celebrate. FEMP aims to promote the understanding of the role of craft skills and craft conservation for the preservation of monuments and cultural objects.

FEMP also seeks to improve the strategic framework for international training in order to develop and expand heritage craft skills. To this end, FEMP is engaged both in political advocacy and in the exchange, dissemination and expansion of expertise at international level. This is due to a declining number of apprentices on the one hand, who are channelled, through assymetric education policies, into higher education with VET left underdevelped. On the other hand, biased conservation regulations, standards and procurement practices have detrimental effects to craft trades businesses and their day-to-day work endangering the constant reproduction of their skills sets.

By keeping up an expert dialogue and informing on these problems as well as by teaching, researching on and promoting traditional craftsmanship and heritage skills, FEMP seeks to foster the general understanding for crafts people and their issues in order to improve the strategic framework for traditional craftsmanship in heritage preservation.

Actividades: Knowledge Transfer Through its members engaged in the research on and training of heritage skills, FEMP supplies vast specialist knowledge on the intangible cultural heritage of traditional crafts. Its eldest member, the European Center for Heritage Crafts and Professions has extensive experience in conducting international courses, going back to The European Centre provides CVET courses specifically for heritage preservation in theory and practice, as well as special Italian preservation and restoration techniques.

This course targets painters and decorators, stucco plasterers, metalworkers, carpenters and joiners, stone masons and sculptors, gilders and bricklayers. The European Centre is the only institution in Europe offering such specialised courses not just on national scale, but also for participants from other countries. The apprentices are given the opportunity to apply what they have learnt under the supervision of the Centre's instructors.

The craftsmen participating are expected to deepen and extend their knowledge and skills in restoration and heritage preservation. In addition, they will get to know specific Italian techniques, swap "tricks of the trade" with craftsmen from other countries in the classrooms and workshops, and - once back in their home countries - pass on what they have learnt to their colleagues and other apprentices.

The aim of the interaction with craftsmen from other countries is to reflect on one's own ways of working and to boost one's self-confidence. Demonstrating, imitating, correcting and joint practicing skills improve the practitioners' command of handwork as a world language.

The know-how acquired benefits the material heritage and its preservation. Through learning, working and living together, the mutual respect and understanding for cultural commonality and diversity is fostered. Moreover, participants develop a feeling for a transnational craft trades identity- with regard to both the perpetual exchange, throughout history, of knowledge and skills between the peoples and the common intangible cultural heritage.

A longer-term aim of FEMP is bringing together specialist and expert knowledge and training expertise from CVET centres for heritage preservation from inside and outside Europe, to coordinate and network their activities, and to develop an ECVET-based curriculum for skilled craftsmen working in the field of heritage preservation and craft conservation and restoration.

In , the spirit of this centre has now resurfaced in Villa Fabris in Thiene. The Centre's activities started being promoted by the Villa Fabris Foundation, in a 18th century architectural complex in the centre of Thiene. The Foundation immediately invested in technologically advanced tools, making the Centre a place where people can exchange not only ideas and objects, but also methods, technologies and know-how.

In , forty years after its establishment, the Centre attracts thousands of European and non-European participants as an international reference both in the debate on conservation and in the application. Its management was taken over by the Walloon Heritage Institute in The IPW is a public interest corporation which performs various functions in parallel to the Heritage Administration: assistance to owners of listed properties at risk, the valuation of certain properties belonging to the listed Walloon heritage and the public sensitization through different activities such as publications, Heritage Days, etc.

Among those missions, the most beautiful one is the preservation and transmission of knowledge in the field of architectural heritage. The Centre of la Paix-Dieu has the chance to develop its activities of training courses on a historic site quite exceptional, ideal teaching aid, of a former Cistercian abbey located in Wallonia, South of Belgium.

On the European scale, the Centre of la Paix-Dieu collaborates with a lot of institutions as the association of Compagnons du Devoir in France, Association of cultural centres, Cistercian abbeys networks, Classes cover a wide age range from European qualification level 4 to 6. FEMP shares and promotes the views and values of craftspeople, namely the respect of practice, tacit knowledge and experience gained through a professional, non-academic approach towards self-perfection. The Center of la Paix-Dieu and the Villa Fabris Foundation pursues the following general objectives: - to culturally enhance the preservation and heritage trades; - to train young apprentices and craftsmen who are technically and culturally prepared in order to stimulate technical development in the field of restoration, combining the use of the latest technology with respect to the tradition, the history and the culture of the area; - to hold specialization courses and updating courses for experts in restoration transferring experience and skills to new generations of craftspeople.

Also, two of the members, the Center of la Paix-Dieu and the Banffy Castle benefit the European recognition of the Cultural Heritage awarded by Europa Nostra Federations of the European Associations of the Heritage for the awakening classes organised for teenagers from 12 to 15 years old. Medidas de salvaguardia: - identification, documentation, research including inventory-making - preservation, protection - promotion, enhancement - transmission, non- formal education - other - Impact analysis and policy evaluation, surveys, promoting sustainable development, use of information technology, participation methods and cultural brokerage.

FARO acts as an interface between local, provincial, regional and national governments, international networks, local and national heritage organizations and institutions, the academic world and civil society.

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