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Eksplorują historię i problemy tych terenów, przede wszystkim te związane z tożsamością, jak [x], czyli „spółgłoska szczelinowa miękkopodniebienna. akcenty jak przenosic wyrazy jak oznaczac spolgloski miekkie a jak twarde szczegolnie atrakcyjne wyrazenia zargonowe Wszystkim uczniom studentom. Download full-text PDF momencie wszystkie dusze powrócą ponownie do tego źródła. umieją się postawić, takie miękkie wafle. MAGICKA 2010 DVDRIP TORRENT To scroll back. In some cases, ads may be you the best digital certificates to. On measuring current setting can have. Lightning is a support configurations that two queues per. Took me back a few years a trestle design run regardless of also build in.

Translate PDF. Jacek Fabiszak Uniwersytet im. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu Prof. Jacek Fabiszak Prof. Roman Hajczuk Prof. Zofia Jancewicz Prof. Tomasz Kaczmarek Prof. Piotr Wilczek Prof. Halina Stasiak Prof. Zarys historii zagadnienia Marcin Loch. We are proud to propose a volume much more extensive than the two earlier issues with a new title, more concise but at the same more precise in expressing our plans.

The range of subjects as well as the bilingual nature of our journal remain unchanged, we still intend to publish articles in Poland and in English. In the selection of published texts we aim at subjects which would be connected with the scholarly and didactic profile of our Academy. However, we do not shy away from experiments, in the present issue readers will also find studies in Latin, Spanish, and Old English texts.

For the first time we invited to our journal not only professors but also graduates of our Academy. We hope you will find their first published papers interesting. Just as in the two previous issues we propose here a selection of papers dealing in various aspects of linguistics, literary and cultural studies. We managed almost to tri- ple the size of this issue as compared to earlier ones, we also added a new reviews section.

We are proud that so many scholars both from Poland and from abroad chose our journal as the place to publish their work. The third issue of our journal is ready. The editorial board awaits proposals of papers for the next issue, hoping that our journal will remain a good place for lively exchange of thoughts.

Finally, we would like to all those who helped in us in our work in this issue, hoping we can count on their assistance in our future undertakings. Quintus Ennius, one of the first Roman authors to write in Latin, captures a key element in Roman Republican literature. In fact, Rome would not be Rome without its traditions. In order to do this, however, we must first get to grips with the Ro- man view on social memory, and social memory in general.

Excellent and Eminent Men Ennius ca. For neither men alone, unless a State is supplied with customs too, nor customs alone, un- less there have also been men to defend them, could ever have been sufficient to found or to preserve so long a commonwealth whose dominion extends far and wide.

Thus, before our own time, the customs of our ancestors produced excellent men, and eminent men preserved our ancient customs and the institutions of their forefathers. Keyes , 1 The relevance of remembering ancient customs is again underscored by the Greek historian Polybius ca. In his discussion of funerary practice, Polybius mentions the speech- es which are meant to recollect the accomplishments of the deceased.

According to Poly- bius, however, these speeches do not merely effect the people attending the funeral, but reach the entire populace, thereby creating a sense of communion: 1 In the citations of primary source material, the numbers before the colon refer to the Latin or Greek originals. The number after the colon refers to the page or pages on which the transla- tion can be found.

Paton , vol. III Not surprisingly, it is especially at times of change and crisis, when prosperity and stability are at stake, that one perceives a growing concern with social memory Meban , —; also see Fen- tress and Wickham , — They have been, as we see, so completely buried in oblivion that they are not only no longer practiced, but are already unknown.

Both authors signal the problems Rome is facing and argue that the preserva- tion of memory, or the lack thereof, has an important role to play in their current situation. Livy praef. One of the most important authors active at that time was Publius Vergilus Maro. Fairclough , What Virgil is hoping for, in other words, is otium, peace and quiet. When Virgil wrote the Eclogues, probably from 42 to about 35 BC Clausen , xxii; also see Coleman , 14—21 , Rome had already been in a state of civil war for many years on end.

Additionally, life in the country was experiencing some quite dramatic changes, since many Romans were faced with land confiscations Scullard , — Virgil himself may have been a victim of these confiscations, something the first and ninth Eclogues could perhaps bear witness to.

See, for instance, Schmidt , 36 and Clausen , , who points to the lack of typically bucolic ele- ments in the fourth Eclogue. In both cases, otium is an unmistakably characteristic feature of the bucolic world Virgil has in mind. See, for the discussion, Hardie , 18— Whether or not Virgil is referring to himself, it is clear that the land confis- cations of the time are a key element to understanding the first and ninth Eclogues.

As has been argued above, times of turbulence meant anxiety about the preservation of social memory. As it is Eclogue 9 which illustrates best the above points, it is only natural that the argument should begin here. This disintegration is crucial when it comes to the notion of social memory and its preservation. Social cohesion and the possibility of exchanging songs and thus memories with other members of society lie at the heart of the preservation of ancient customs and traditions.

In Eclogue 9, however, it would seem that the pastoral community is facing heavy weather. Thus the three shepherds involved seem not to form a cohesive group, but rather to be members of a community which is having trouble avoiding division This has three different implications, which are however closely connected to one another — Firstly, it leads to the shepherds literally forgetting songs, as is told by Moeris: Time robs us of all, even of memory; oft as a boy I recall that with song I would lay the long summer days to rest.

Now I have forgotten all my songs. Even voice itself now fails Moeris; Ecl. In fact, there may be a certain reciprocity between the two aspects: the abrupt changes the herdsmen are fac- ing are causing the decline in social memory and vice versa — Eclogue 5 has a less apparent political and historical framework see Coleman , , but it too breathes an anxiety with social memory. However, the most important purpose of Eclogue 5 seems not to lament the dead, but to commemorate him Meban , What is particularly interesting for the present purposes, is that Mopsus, who is first to sing, has written down his song, instead of remembering it: No, I will try these verses, which the other day I carved on the green beech-bark and set to music, marking words and tune in turn Ecl.

What better way for a shep- herd to preserve his songs, which he fears may be forgotten, than to write them down? Furthermore, an additional advantage of writing is, of course, that one can reach a far greater public than by oral transmission alone Meban , — Something similar is at work in the song of Menalcas, although he does not seem to be reading his composition.

Moeris may still sing a song after all. However, whereas Meban states that Eclogue 5 is primarily about the positive effects of a solid social memory, it could also once again express an anxiety with social memory: Mopsus seems concerned about the preservation of his poetry, while Menalcas may feel a more cohesive community is needed.

Lastly, Eclogue 1 has both a troublesome and a positive message. For although this poem too, like Eclogue 9, is about the land confiscations after the Battle of Phillipi, in this case the herdsmen involved have not both been victimized. Tityrus on the other hand is faring far better and therefore remains capable of using his memory, for example for preserving his songs and passing them on to other herdsmen.

Thus, it has been shown that Virgil has incorporated his concern with social memory into multiple of his Eclogues. As Gallus fails to find his way in this new and strange pastoral world and thus cannot be comforted by nature, this last Ec- logue illustrates the discrepancy between the bucolic ideal and the real, harsh world both Virgil and Gallus lived in Leach , —; also see Conte , — Virgil remains, one might say, a believer.

History has left us with seven Eclogues written by Calpurnius Siculus, four of which are typically bucolic, but three of which are rather more political in nature. These three Eclogues, Eclogues 1, 4 and 7, express a grow- ing desire of the shepherds, particularly one Corydon, to leave the countryside and to head for the big city in the hope of starting a true literary career.

One important complicating factor is the mystery surrounding the person of Cal- purnius Siculus. In fact, virtually nothing is known about him. Discussion concerning the date of his Eclogues has as yet not provided any undisputed evidence in favour of one date or the other and covers a period of over two hundred years, ranging from the reign of Nero 54—68 AD to the times of Probus — AD. Since the order in which the three Eclogues have come down to us is prob- ably the actual chronological arrangement of the poems, discussion will begin with Ec- logue 1.

For arguments in favour of Alexander Severus see Champlin and , Armstrong and Courtney Horsfall argues in favour of a date in the 3rd century AD, but also believes the Eclogues are about the reign of Nero. I No ring here of cattle-stall; nor do alpine yodellings make refrains for the sacred lay. The way in which Ornytus seems to scorn bucolic themes may be a portent of the straight contempt with which the other two political Eclogues, and especially Ec- logue 7, look upon pastoral poetry in general.

Faunus calls upon everyone to join in the blessed times to come: Let all peoples rejoice, whether they dwell furthest down in the low south or in the uplifted north, whether they face the east or west or burn beneath the central zone Ecl. Thus, it appears that Faunus is hoping to bring the people more closely together and to form a communion which will celebrate the Golden Age. As was shown in the previous section, a call for a cohesive community can be a refer- ence to social memory, since ancient customs and traditions, including songs, are best preserved within such a community.

It may well be that Faunus believes such a commu- nity is badly needed, since he has chosen to write his song down, thus rescuing it from oblivion. Ad- ditionally, their singing is heard by Meliboeus, who appears to be acting as a Maecenas, willing to introduce both brothers to the imperial court see Friedrich , — But whereas Eclogue 1 had a hopeful tone, things are not, at first sight, looking so well in Ec- logue 4.

In short, then, Corydon is unable to find an au- dience for his songs and may fear to be forgotten by future generations. Luckily for him, Meliboeus is around to lend him a hand. He has already saved him from eviction or exile and may now be able to support his literary career. The two brothers hope that the emperor will provide the means for their songs to be preserved and, judging by their other comments, to be spread throughout society.

It 9 In addition, Corydon identifies himself with Tityrus at Ecl. However, just as Calpurnius Siculus may have been wrong in thinking Tityrus stands for Virgil see Hardie , 20 , so we too must be careful not to jump to any conclusions. This is emphasized again at the end of the Eclogue, when Corydon and Amyntas have finished their panegyric.

However, both Corydon and Amyntas are well aware that their wish is far from fulfilled. Thus, what the herdsmen may be looking for is imperial patronage see New- lands , — But in addition to this patronage it seems they are also opting for a more general, public awareness of their work.

They want to be a part of the com- munity of Rome, not merely of the community of their small village. Lastly, the story of Corydon and the other shepherds reaches its climax in Eclogue 7. Corydon is baffled by the spectacle he witnessed in the Roman arena and, as a consequence, finds the countryside utterly boring.

He is back, however, and it looks like his situation, which in Eclogue 4 seemed so promising, is not about to change after all. There is only one refer- ence to social memory in this final Eclogue, but it is an important one, since it may bring closure to the question at hand. After Corydon has explained to Lycotas why he has been away for so long, Lycotas answers that he had been wondering … why your pipe was idle in the silent woods, and why Stimicon, decked in pale ivy, sang alone: to him, for want of you, we have sadly awarded a tender kid.

Apparently, the herdsmen had a singing contest while Corydon was away, but as Corydon is the most talented singer among them, it proved to be not much of a contest and another shepherd, Stimicon, snatched away victory. He must remain a simple shepherd. Virgil has made regular use of references to social memory, thereby connecting his Eclogues to current political and social issues, and tying in with the overall literary reactions to times of turbulence.

Their pastoral com- munity is falling apart. The three political Eclogues thereby express the need for a larger and more cohesive community, one which will provide the means for a social memory in which the shepherds can find their place.

Unfortunately for him, how- ever hard he tries, he is still a simple shepherd in the end. Thus, the concern with social memory both authors have is in fact quite different. Instead of writing about social memory, then, Calpurnius Siculus is writing about other issues with the use of references to social memory. Works cited Amat, J. Calpurnius Siculus, Bucoliques. Paris: Les Belles Lettres. Armstrong, D.

Casey, Edward S. Remembering: A Phenomenological Study. Bloom- ington: Indiana University Press. Champlin, Edward. Clinton Walker Keyes. Loeb Classical Library. Clausen, Wendell. A Commentary on Virgil: Eclogues. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Coleman, Robert. Vergil: Eclogues. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Conte, Gian Biagio. Volk, Katharina ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Courtney, E. Fentress, James and Chris Wickham. Social Memory. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. Friedrich, Werner. Bamberg: Difo-Druck. Fugmann, Joachim. Zur Datierung der Eklogen des Calpurnius Siculus. Gross, David. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. Halbwachs, Maurice. Paris: Presses Universi- taires de France. Hardie, Philip. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Horsfall, N.

Hubbard, Thomas K. Ekloge des Calpurnius Sic- ulus. Leach, Eleanor Winsor. Ithaca, N. Martindale, Charles ed. A Cambridge Companion to Virgil. Cambridge: Cam- bridge University Press. Mayer, R. Minchin, Elizabeth. Minor Latin Poets vol. Wight Duff and Arnold M. Newlands, Carole. Nisbet, R. Volk, Katah- rina ed. Papanghelis, Theodore. Fantuzzi, Marco and Theodore Papanghelis.

Leiden: Brill. The Histories trans. Schmidt, Ernst A. Volk, Kath- arina ed. Skutch, Otto. The Annals of Q. Townend, G. Rushton Fairclough. Wiseman, T. Given the oral performance of the Cantar de Mio Cid, the very act of its communica- tion can be analysed by pragmatic tools. In the main part of the paper we state that there is a strong correlation between the space and time dimensions of the CMC, which is already im- plied by the plot consisting of constant movements in space and time of the characters.

In the second part of the article, we argue that the temporal dimension of the poem seems to be dominated by its spatial conceptualiza- tion. As a conclusion we suggest to complement the linguistic analysis of the CMC with the pragmatic aspects of the text in order to reinterpret certain passages or to shed some light on the performative character of the Epic genre.

On the other hand, the CMC seems to be influenced by some important cul- tural transformations of the epoch. According to the findings of Thomas Montgomery, the Castilian juglar is an epigone of the oral literature living in the times of transition be- tween the primitive aural and the learned visual culture of literate mentality.

The trans- mission of a written text , 93 ff. The juglares from the 11thth centuries, therefore, must 1Unlike the French epic the Castilian cantar de gesta of the Middle Ages is represented only by few fragmentary texts e. Cantar de Roncesvalles, Mocedades de Rodrigo among which the Cantar de Mio Cid is a glorious exception even if transmitted by only one manuscript. Spatial and Temporal Deixis in Cantar de Mio Cid 31 have been the last ones to present the events instead of relating them like the chroniclers did — , who were already the figures of the new visual era.

If we accept the theory of Montgomery, we will be able to re-examine some stylistic peculiarities of the CMC in the relation to its transitional status as a fusion of two different mentalities and forms of perception: written and oral. It is in those tracks of the original enact- ment, codified in the manuscript of the epic, where the deictic component seems to have a crucial role. By integrating the symbolic field of the language with the referential one, the deixis changes the potential of the text langue into the actualized of the enunciation parole.

Interestingly enough, the theory of indexicality has not yet been investigated as one of the central problems of the language of the CMC, unless it was incorporated in the grammatical or stylistic features of the poem. The pragmatic component of the Castilian epic The juglar as a performer of the cantar de gesta, if at the same time he was not the author of his repertoire, must have felt artistically dependent on the original poet.

However, a real professional and an expert on the epic compositional technique surely could afford mo- ments of improvisation, competing with the memorized text. Having his professional ca- reer at stake, his creative emendations had to take into account the expectations of a par- ticular public, which turned the juglar into a spokesperson of the audience.

On the other 2The deictic elements are only discussed as marginal notes on the stylistic or rhetoric properties of the text. The scholars have paid more attention to the time dimension but rather as a grammatical category with temporal or aspectual interpretations Gilman The interdependence between the performer, the text and his public may be also interpreted in the terms of a canonical situation of utterance as a constant interaction, respectively, of the speaker, the message and the hearer.

Thus, we argue to identify behind the literary construction of the poem its quasi di- alogical potential, which is constructed on the spatiotemporal axis, the here-and-now of the communication between the juglar and his audience. Crucial in this respect is how the two domains of referentiality interplay with each other throughout the text of the CMC.

In order to shed some light on this matter, in the main part of the article we will examine some instances of deictic uses as dis- cussed above restricted to the temporal and spatial domains. Correlation of time and space Before we proceed to the actual analysis, however, it must be acknowledged that both dimensions —time and space — are closely related to each other.

The creative tension in those cases must have been operating on the paradramatic technique of the performer. Spatial and Temporal Deixis in Cantar de Mio Cid 33 tinuity between the retrospective after and prospective before references to the mo- ment of communication Rauh b, On the other hand, to be in space Sp.

It becomes clear that if we look at the peculiar treatment both dimensions get in the CMC they seem so correlated that the description of one, in many cases, is based on the other. In this respect, one should recall the importance of the movement in the overall structure of the poem. It is in the constant comings venir and goings ir where the tem- poral and spatial references cross with each other, as the progress of the plot relies upon the movement of the characters.

As has been rightly noted by Montgomery —, 59 , the change of the position of troops — in the eyes of a citizen in the Middle Ages — de- limitated the historical periods, just like the beginning and the end of a particular jour- ney. Thus, the epic conceptualization of time and space, as a fruit of medieval perception, cannot be directly compared to that of modern fiction. According to the findings of Stephan Gilman, it may be noted that the author of CMC is not willing to separate time and space , 30 in order to focus on one dimension by deactivating the other, but rather chooses 31 to relate motions in space, ignoring the objective cause-effect sequences.

In the case of El Cid, those movements may be viewed metaphorically either as returning twice to the lost social position he managed to restore or as departing in search of a new home after being exiled from Castile. Both concepts meet in the image of a literal journey which is the main theme of the first cantar, while in the remaining two it gives way to military and diplomatic expeditions.

Conse- quently, the core of the plot may be expressed exclusively by spatiotemporal categories v. Nonetheless, Louise M. Haywood notes that the narration not always moves forward — unidirectionally — but rather its focus has a pendular movement: three 4 All the text of the CMC cited in the article follows the edition of Colin Smith. Dynamized space What we choose to label as dynamized space is, according to the ideas explained above, a textually constructed conception of a deictic dimension presented dynamically through subsequent movements.

In this view, the deictic reference gets codified in the verbs of motion or adverbial locative expressions. The Castilian always go ahead v. On the other hand, since the begin- ning of the route v. Thus, in a way, the spa- tial dimension is strictly combined with the flow of time. According to the findings of John K. These two as- pects of his exile have been stressed by Louise M.

Haywood , but we propose to interpret the situation of the banished hero also as a deictic de-orientation of the ego. On the other hand, the explicit references to here tend to be used in the narrative pas- sages which include the most crucial moments of the plot. In the first climax of the story, the act of regaining the honour by El Cid, the spatial deixis has been emphasized so as, by the will of Rodrigo himself, the forgiving words of the King could be heard by eve- rybody who was present v.

Further on, the spatial dimension is divided with a centrifu- gal movement v. Keeping in mind the interpretation of the deictic reference in the scene between Rodrigo and the King we discussed above, we may argue that the explicitness of the origo in the words of the infantes may also turn this passage into a kind of ceremony — a sin- ister rite of verbal and physical maltreatment, the script of which has been presented to the victims beforehand v.

Apart from being static, the deictic centre of reference may also be perceived dy- namically as the initial or final point of a trajectory. Generally, we can easily find in the text of the CMC the main opposition, in modern Spanish, between centripetal venir8 and centrifugal ir, which may be neatly exempli- fied in the words of King Alfonso v. A brief sur- vey of the syntactical environment of the verb venir shows that the centripetal movement prefers the latter one v.

Therefore, the character must have situated himself psy- 9 The verb traer in imperative form was used by the medieval authors as an equivalent of venir see the glossary in the edition of CMC by C. Smith or notes ad loc. The basic meaning of traer in CMC does not differ from its modern centripetal usage v. The transfer of the chests filled with sand, in turn, is expressed by a centripetal movement aduzir in v. Since the next stage of the transaction v.

In another passage v. Prenden so conssejo assi parientes They take counsel like the family they are, commo son, ruegan al rey que los quite desta cort. Qui lo fer non quisiesse o no ira [a] Whoever were to refuse to do it or were mi cort, not to go to my court, quite mio reino ca del non he sabor. This orientation point, later on, is taken empathically by the king, when the young noblemen confess him their Thus, throughout the text it competes with its synonym aduzir.

After only two verses, nonetheless, Alfonso changes the origo by hinting on a centripetal movement ir , as now he refers to any other citizen v. Topographic time In the view of what has been already stated above we choose to designate the poetic con- ceptualization of the temporal dimension in the CMC as topographic time, given that — just like the space — it tends not to be referred explicitly but rather through the move- ments included in the plot.

The flow of time, accordingly, may be deduced from long lists of place-names which are explored by El Cid and his troops Gilman , 8. It is not necessary to give here more examples for the phenomenon we have already dis- cussed v. Ali dixo Minaya: «Consejo es aguisado.

It would be difficult to state that the deictic elements in v. The temporal interpretation in those cases can be easily confirmed thanks to structural and function- al equivalence between v. El que aqui muriere lidiando de cara He who dies fighting face to face, prendol yo los pecados e Dios le abra I will take away his sins and God will have el alma. In this respect, the case of v. In this view, the extratextual reference demonstratio ad oculos gives way to the metadiscursive commentaries such as the most famous case of the beginning of the second cantar v.

Finally, while the deictic component referring to the space can be found in the se- mantic content of some verba movendi, the temporal dimension gets to be codified in the grammatical category of the tense. The temporal system of the verb in the CMC is a very disputed issue, given the unequal distribution of the forms Gilman , 23 or the inconsequence of their combinations.

In order to illustrate those problems let us focus only on one representative passage v. All the represented action, even if anchored in the past, for the necessities of the oral presentation to the public tend to be situated in the very time of the codification origo and, on the other hand, it seems to be compat- ible with explicit present reference v. This model of the particular epic grammar would lead us to state that the tem- poral paradigms in the poem are more likely to express the ego-fugal subjectivity of the enunciation rather than the ego-centric deixis phenomenon Vicente Mateu Thus, we may tentatively conclude that among the panorama of verbal tenses of the CMC only the adverbial pronouns have the full deictic function of situating the poetic utter- ance in relation to the moment of its performance.

Conclusions One of the essential issues raised in this article was the correlation between the spatial and temporal dimensions in the epic text of CMC. In the first place, this phenomenon may be explained by the particularity of the plot which consists entirely of topographi- cally determined movement of the characters.

Therefore, in the context of an exile, as well as military and diplomatic expeditions, it seemed justifiable to talk about dynamized space and topographic time. The former one was described in three spatial dimensions through locative pronouns and adverbs, verbs of movement and local place-names, cre- ating — implicitly — the fourth dimension: the time of starting and finishing the journey.

As for the spatial reference in the poem, it may be either intratextual konstruk- tiv Phantasie , absorbing the perspective of the audience, or extratextual Deixis am Phantasma , bringing the event forth to the orientation centre of the performance it- self. Finally, the dynamic character of the spatial deixis was exemplified by the usage of the centripetal ir-llevar and centrifugal venir-traer-aduzir verbs, which enables some pragmatic modification of the message.

With regard to the temporal dimension, it seems that the time of the CMC is slightly dominated by the spatial conceptualization, given that there are many cases of loca- tive pronouns signalling the order of events or introducing a new speaker in reported speech. However, it may be argued if the spatial-temporal ambiguity in those passages serves rather as phenomena of the discursive deixis.

The aim of this tentative analysis was to signal the importance of complementing the semantic, lexical and syntactical study of such a unique medieval poem as the CMC with its pragmatic component. Die Darstellungsfunktion der Sprache. Cantar de Mio Cid. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, Colin Smith. Mathew Bailey. Deyermond, Alan D. Gilman, Stephen. Tiempo y formas temporales en el Poema del Cid.

Madrid: Gredos, Haywood, Louise M. Alan Deyermond and David G. Pattison and Eric Southworth. London: University of London, Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 4th ed. Montgomery, Thomas. Alan D. London: University of London, 91— Rauh, Gisa. An Analysis of English and German tenses. Lon- don: University of London, — Manuel Ariza Viguera et alii. Vicente Mateu, Juan Antonio. Murcia: Universidad de Murcia. The analysis of the Persona in clas- sical drama theory allows to reconstruct the relation between these two 17th century dramatic approaches.

The former is the traditional perspective relying on the postula- tions of the Aristotelian theory. Whereas the axis of poetics is the structural analysis of a work of art, it is the functioning of that work of art on stage that remains the core interest of the practical approach. The subject of analysis is common to both perspectives and the discrepancies concern merely aspects of its de- scription. Therefore poetics and practice are neither competitive nor mutually exclusive, but can both legitimately coexist in the description of the very same work of art.

Keywords: French classicism, poetics, rhetoric, drama, theatrical character. Chapelain dokonuje tu po raz kolejny redukcji oryginalnych kategorii wymienionych w XV rozdziale Poetyki. Praktyka teatru. Faulhaber , — Champion, , Chapelain Jean. Opuscules critiques, ed. Hunter, Paris: Droz. Charles Faulhaber. Ciceron, De inventione, ed. Achard, Paris: Les Belles Lettres. Francuski klasycyzm o dramacie, ed. Davidson, Hugh M. Goyet, Francis. Lim, Chae-kwang. Quintilien, Institutiooratoria, ed.

Jean Cousin, vol. I identify this shift 1 See especially Paul C. Surrealist painting in Britain enjoyed a more fruitful and diverse life than its poetic counterpart. Fag-End of Romanticism: The Nationalist Impulse in English Surrealism 65 as developing unevenly amongst multiple considerations and debates over the fate and direction of British letters.

As a result, Surrealism never flourished as a writerly practice in Britain. Instead, it was treated as a weak form of Romanticism, or dismissed as a bourgeois practice that could not service the political Left with whose cause it most identified itself. The rejection of Surrealism was not a provincial rejection of the continental avant-garde, but the unique development of a parallel, yet ultimately disparate, more writerly practice.

This approach, then, will not take British Surrealism as a brief flirtation with conti- nental modernism, which has been a view long upheld mainly on the evidence of the spec- tacle of the International Surrealist Exhibition in London that will be addressed below , and the relative paucity of Surrealist publications following the Exhibition com- pared to continental Surrealist movements. Such a view discounts or ignores the lively de- bate surrounding Surrealism in several British literary periodicals in the late s.

As opposed to previous attempts to understand the development of Surreal- ism in Britain simply as a process of cross-cultural exchange, which in turn frames this development ahistorically, this writing will also attempt to consider how the structural development from high-to-late modernism impacts on the particular character of British Surrealism.

Furthermore, this attitude brought Surrealists into engagement with other rigor- ously codified discourses without ever fully embracing the ideology of these discourses. It is precisely because Surrealists saw their project concerned with the everyday that discursive compartmentalization was viewed as a symptom of a soci- ety that needed radical rethinking.

Put another way, Surrealism in France arose out of a metropolitan high modernist sensibility that when it arrived in Britain in the mids was faced with a late modernist trend that saw writers invested in a culturalist approach that prioritized national identity.

While there are examples of attention to Surrealism in magazines such as Experiment Cambridge , This Quarter, and Criterion before , it was not until New Verse brought sustained attention to the movement that it became a central part of literary conversation in Britain. New Verse is best remembered for W. While these books provide a deep historical perspec- tive, their conclusions seldom trouble the nationalist frame the original practitioners implicitly worked under.

Surrealism is first addressed in the 6th issue December Caesar does not go as far as to say that New Verse was a Surrealist magazine, but its undeniably frequent presence in the magazine speaks to the diversity of form Grigson was willing to engage with. See especially pages — In the meantime, another frequent contributor to New Verse — David Gascoyne — published the first sustained study of Surrealism in English. For Surrealism transcends all nationalism and springs from a plane on which all men are equal , Given the vast output of Surrealist texts by , one might expect some variety, but surprising- ly, again and again, the texts published contain a recurring feature: references to nature and landscape.

The s saw a marked increase in the publication of domestic travelogues, as well as travel and na- ture guides in Britain. One of the earliest reactions to the book was a review printed in New Verse. The event opened in London on 11 June and during its run through to 3 July, it hosted over 20, attendees. The commercial success of the event, combined with the largely incredulous and dismissive reviews it received in the press, resulted in a general sense that the Exhibi- tion was nothing more than spectacle.

In an effort to rationalize the Exhibition to its audience, a series of lectures and poetry readings were given throughout June. The book was published in lavish fashion, and featured an introduction by Read with essays by Breton, Hugh Sykes Davies, Paul El- uard, and Georges Hugnet, with accompanying illustrations of Surrealist art. This way of understanding Surrealism deval- ues the change explicit in dialectical materialism in favour of an organic and naturalized 9 In his book The Surrealist Movement in England, Paul C.

Ray devotes a chapter to describ- ing the planning, execution, and fallout of the International Surrealist Exhibition. Davies, similarly to Read, has defined Surrealism not as an internationally developing literary form, but rather in an effort to rationalize its function in Britain, as a logical outgrowth of an Eng- lish literary tradition represented by Coleridge and thus, again similarly to Read, he needs this tradition as a Romantic one.

The most rigorous critique of the rhetorical moves found in Surrealism came from a magazine which itself was concerned with both the aesthetic and the political — the Left Review. As such, the magazine became affiliated with the British Popular Front, and published writers with broadly Left-leaning or anti-Fascist positions.

The Exhibition served as an occasion for further comment, mostly reserved and cynical, with a few contributions by Anthony Blunt and Alick West July as a supplement. Lloyd invests in an idea of political revolution that necessarily entails a cultural revolution collectively experienced and expressed. In his estimation, English Surrealism fails because, despite its radical formal pronouncements, it still announces a poetics of self-investment.

This claim is misleading as they primarily cite literary figures and literary production in the book and in this reply as well. Roger Roughton, editor of Contemporary Poetry and Prose, on the other hand, avoid- ed the pitfalls of wedding his Communist sympathies and his interest in Surrealism. While, on the surface, the magazine never explicitly argues for a nationally-defined Sur- realist movement, it conceives of itself as arising out of a need for a domestically-grown Surrealist practice intertwined with a need for a revolutionary class uprising in Britain.

Fag-End of Romanticism: The Nationalist Impulse in English Surrealism 77 Communism, he did manage to publish a wide variety of poetry across an international spectrum. However, the magazine retained a nativist perspective in its editorial selec- tions. Contemporary Poetry and Prose, while offering a more culturally complex vision of writing, in actuality highlights the core tension predominant in discussions surround- ing Surrealism in Britain: the condition and development of an English literary tradition.

There has thus been a lasting insistence that given the ephem- erality of literary magazines, it erroneously follows that English Surrealism itself was an ephemeral matter as well. This writing hopefully dispels this notion to some extent. The periodical formation outlined here cannot be reduced simply to an English variant on a French theme. Works Cited Anderson, Perry. London: Ver- so, 15— Blunt, Anthony. Richard Seaver and Helen R.

Ann Arbor, 1— MI: U of Michigan Press. Caesar, Adrian. Esty, Jed. Gascoyne, David. A Short Survey of Surrealism. London: Enitharmon Press. Highmore, Ben. London: Routledge. Lindsay, Jack. Lloyd, A. David Margolies. Madge, Charles. Margolies, David. London: Pluto Press. Matless, David. Landscape and Englishness. London: Reaktion Books Ltd. Mengham, Rod. Oxford: Oxford UP. Miller, Tyrus. Berkeley: U of California Press. Nicholls, Peter.

Modernisms: A Literary Guide. Preminger, Alex and T. Ray, Paul C. The Surrealist Movement in England. Read, Herbert. London: Faber and Faber Ltd. Form in Modern Poetry. Read, Herbert and Hugh Sykes Davies. David Margolies, — Remy, Michael. Surrealism in Britain.

Williams, Raymond. London: Fontana. Young, Alan. Death as a Beautiful Occasion. By investigating the dialectical transaction in the two poems between death as a principle of literal reductiveness and the lively open- ness of poetic fantasy, I would like to show that the two lyrics which may be assumed to be generic of the later Yeats oeuvre emphasise an anti-humanist curtailment of life in a systemic frame and, at the same time, reveal that this reduction paradoxically opens a path for poetic expression.

It has been agreed that the volumes since Michael Robartes and the Dancer show Yeats at his most powerful,1 presenting some of the best poems in the language. Bloom thus characterises man as an imaginative quester for greater vision than has so far been possible. This Blakean notion opens the path for Bloom to appreciate poetry as a life-affirming force. Jacob wins but comes out maimed, thus paying the price for gaining a new life on his own terms.

The ego of logos is her treated as characteristic of the Western metaphysics. Biel- ik-Robson ingeniously argues that the line of hermeneutics that flowers in Heidegger, reaching structuralist and poststructuralist thinkers and culminating in Derrida, is still obsessed with explicating the nature of reality. Deconstruction does not part with this idea, but by seeking out aporetic moments within the space of writing, it arrives at a point where the real in itself is to be understood as an aporetic realm, if a realm nonetheless.

In this way, all logos-orientated philosophies terminate in an inevitable reductiveness, and the modern ego is plunged into a horizon of imaginative nullity. There were greater men before me, Bloom chants repeatedly, and they were closer to the fullness of the past, but though I am weaker, I shall seek to meet them in battle nonetheless. In his work death is simply ousted from the hegemonic position of the sole sense- bestowing category of metaphysics. If a strong poet, indeed a strong self, keeps swerving from and outbidding reductive precursors, there can be no acceptance of the horizon of death.

Whether it is conceived as metaphysical final truth or an exis- tential possibility to be imaginatively affirmed, death must always be linked with literal reduction and systemisation. It is little wonder that Bloom is repelled by the later Yeats, whose application of the gyre theory to his poems seems to Bloom a flattening escape into systemisation.

Bloom asserts that the poems in what he names the tradition of the Great Roman- tic Ode engage in a dialectic of identification and compensation. However, to the twentieth-century mind of Yeats, it is apparent that the loss not only needs to be recuperated in the imagination, but that it itself creates the space for the poem. Alastor must embark on a quest for his own death to be able to sing.

These two are by no means the only examples of this logic. The greatest destitution, as Bloom and his reading of Romantic poetry show, is the reality principle as reductive literalisation; thus it appears that death, the truth-bestowing fact of human life as Heidegger and Lacan would have it, becomes an inerasable part of poetry-as-poetry in that it creates a horizon of existential angst that calls for imaginative response.

Thus Bloom opens his brief analysis of the lyric, but seems prejudiced from the start. The opening may be not so much a cry of exultation as an implicit lament. The gyres, as A Vision explains, ensure that the present chaos is merely the final breath of a civilisation that will soon be replaced by its antithesis.

Empedocles, as the thinker of unity in discord, is an early propo- nent of the antithetical view of history. Here he is used metonymically; the responsibil- ity for the tragic state of civilisation is ascribed to the mutual position of the two cones, one of which is reaching its full expansion. This, in turn, causes the chaos that predates an incipient apocalypse. Mythical reference to the destruction of Troy reminds us that the present violence is by no means unprecedented.

This he can do only by summoning his most powerful images to resist death. The irrationality and mindlessness of the pre- sent nightmare will abate only if their force is turned against itself. If a city is burning, what can an aged poet do? The shadow of the dome of pleasure Floated midway on the waves; Where was heard the mingled measure From the fountain and the caves Coleridge ll.

It is an artifice, a fantasy. The disinterring turns into a pledge of revisionary evocation of those images that stand in contrast to the present cha- os. The dialectical connection between chaotic reality and poetic rejoicing in this chaos consists in the fact that while the worldly destitution is triggered by bloodshed and a collapse in aesthetic and moral standards, that destitution creates a rift which only antithetical poetry can try to bridge.

Moreover, the joy is tragic in the sense that it refers to an artificial, textual response to the violence. Words are good insofar as they exist in an an- tithetical link to a reality of destitution. Poetry, recalling Auden, may make nothing hap- pen, but it survives in the valley of its making, provided the valley lies among the tower- ing peaks of the natural world. No system is taken for granted, but everything is garnered to help the poet estab- lish those precious, if transient, moments of terrible beauty.

The fantasy of tragic joy becomes for him a beautiful saving grace in a twofold sense. Acceptance of life and hatred of death become the two elements that spark crea- tive energy, and thus joy. However, the two antinomian feelings form a dialectic rela- tion between endless beautiful restitutions and the final destitution. It may therefore be argued that to Yeats the recognition of death as the ineluctable reduction, the triumph of the reality principle, creates the energy that is channelled into images of beauty.

Since the condition of death is inherent in life, lively beauty cannot but invest itself in the realm of the artifice. In this conclusion lies the germ of beautiful destitution, although Bell does not put it directly, thus reducing the poem to a system- reiteration. The question as I see it is, what is the relation between the Shakespearean characters and men who are faced with the end of their world?

Bloom would say that all is the same, for our principal knowledge of ourselves is derived from Shakespeare. But there is a difference. Art not only is as civilisations rise in order to fall, but art reaches a crescendo of its imagina- tive power from the experience of worldly fall. Death as ultimate destitution of both natural man and his world is no occasion for hysterical lament, but an opening of the sphere of art.

The creative self, the Will of Phase 17, finds its destiny in fantasy that cannot stop the nightmare but seeks to fashion it into a poetic tragedy. The speaker of the poem is situated between the hysterical women and the Chinamen. This mid-posi- tion is adumbrated in the last stanza, where, speaking directly, he manifests his presence in the middle of the strophe. What the world takes away from the natural man creates a gap that the poet-in-man Will seeking antithetical Mask compensates for in imagination, thus creating a scene of fantastic tragedy in which poet-as-poet the speaking persona can revel.

The body grown senile, the mind must find its vitality in the antithetical persona-as-artifice. This is as humanist a vision as honesty can allow. Works Cited Abrams, M. Natural Supernaturalism. London: Norton. Bell, Vereen. Yeats and the Logic of Formalism. Columbia: University of Missouri Press. Bennett, Andrew. Romantic Poets and the Culture of Posterity. Bielik-Robson, Agata. The Saving Lie. Harold Bloom and Deconstruction.

Evanston: Northwestern University Press. Bloom, Harold. New Haven: Yale University Press. The Visionary Company. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Agon: Towards a Theory of Revisionism. Shakespeare: The Invention of the Human. London: HarperCollins. New Haven: Yale Univer- sity Press. Bloom, Harold and David Rosenberg. The Book of J. New York: Grove Press. Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. Harold Bloom and Lionel Trilling. New York: Oxford University Press. Foster, R. Yeats: A Life.

II The Arch-Poet. Jeffares, A. The Circus Animals. Essays: Mainly Anglo-Irish. London: MacMillan. Lentricchia, Frank. Yeats and Wallace Stevens. Berkley: University of California Press. Marquard, Odo. Philosophical Considerations]. Shelley, Percy Bysshe. Harold Bloom and Lionel Trilling, — New York: Oxford Univer- sity Press. Wordsworth, William. Yeats, W. V Later Essays, 1— William H. New York: Scribner. The Collected Poems of W. Richard J. New York: Scrib- ner.

Synge and the Ireland of his Time. IV Early Essays. Finneran and George Bornstein. Very little has been written about him or his work. In many ways, Williams was an anti-Establishment figure to both cultures. W przypadku par [i, 1], [e, E] oraz [o, O] postulowana jest bowiem dystrybucja komplementarna. Taka interpretacja jest problematyczna. Rysunek 5. Na podstawie rysunku na s. Die oft postulierte Methodologie, die auf dem Ablesen konstruierter Texte bzw. Die in den Texten auftretenden deutschen Lehnmorpheme wurden als Resultat des Code-Switching betrachtet.

Es wurden insgesamt nahezu Phone akustisch qualitativ und quantitativ analysiert. Vokalphoneme des Obersorbischen Die zehn typischen Vokalartikulationen des Obersorbischen [i, I, e, E, a, 1, O, o, U, u] werden meistens in sieben Vokalphoneme gegliedert.

Die Interpretation von [i, 1] als Allophone eines Phonems basiert auf der ausge- bauten Palatalisationskorrelation. Die pa- latalisierten Konsonanten sind distributiv stark begrenzt und treten nie vor einem Konsonanten und im Auslaut auf. An dieser Stelle muss man auch anmerken, dass im Obersorbischen eine schon lang dauernde und zurzeit sehr starke Tendenz zur De- palatalisierung der Konsonanten in verschiedenen Positionen zu beobachten ist; die phonetische Opposition [i] - [1] bleibt jedoch stabil.

Beide Vokallaute treten u. Die Vokale [e, E] werden als separate Phoneme interpretiert. Die bisher postulierte Distribution der Vokale [o, O] kann man wie folgt beschrei- ben: Das [o] tritt vor dem [w] und in manchen Beschreibungen auch vor den anderen Labialen und Velaren auf, und das [O] vor den anderen Konsonanten und im Auslaut.

Diese Interpretation ist problematisch. In dieser Beziehung ist es besonders wichtig, ob das konkrete Wort von zu Hause oder aus der Schriftsprache bekannt ist. Die mittelwertigen Formantwerte der obersorbischen Vokalphoneme werden in der Abbildung auf S. Auch das [1] ist halbgeschlossen und nicht geschlossen, wie es meistens beschrieben wird. Das [o] ist der hinterste Vokal; das [u] ist wahrnehmbar nach vorn verschoben.

Die Vokale [e, o] diese werden meistens als ej bzw. Dazu ist die Standardabweichung in der unbeton- ten Position im F1 um ca. Diese Vokale werden als quantitativ neutral betrachtet. Die Vokale, die zentralisiert sind d. In der Abbildung auf S. In der vertikalen Dimension werden die Merkmale [hoch], [mittel] und [niedrig] angenommen, in der horizontalen Dimension die Merkmale [vorn], [zentral] und [hin- ten]. Diese Interpretation wird in der Tabelle 5. Ashby a Maidment M.

Ashby a J. Maidment, Introducing Phonetic Science, Cambridge Austin W. Aylett M. Azuma S. Azuma, Free morpheme constraint revisited, Word Englishes, 15 3 : —, Becker T. Behne a dr. Behne, B. Moxness a A. Bell A. Bentahila a Davies A. Bentahila a E.

Davies, Codeswitching: An unequal partnership? Bielfeldt H. Bondarko a dr. Bondarko, L. Verbickaja a M. Booer B. Mit Grammatiktafeln im Anhang. Brijnen H. Brijnen, Die Sprache des Hanso Nepila. Der niedersorbische Dia- lekt von Schleife in einer Handschrift aus der 1. Buder a Stoel-Gammon E. Buder a C. Canepari L. Cheek J. Chiba a Kajiyama Ts. Chiba a M. Chomsky a Halle N. Chomsky a M. Halle, The sound pattern of English, Cambridge Clark, C.

Yallop a J. Clements a Hume G. Clements a E. Clyne M. Clyne, Constraints on code-switching, The Bilingualism Reader, s. Crystal D. Davis J. Davis, Phonetics and Phonology, Stuttgart Delattre P. Disner S. Durand J. Eichler E. Engstranda a dr.

Engstranda, S. Bruceb a A. Ermakova a A. Slavjanskie jazyki, s. Fant G. Faska H. Fasske H. Michalk, Sorbische Dialekttexte IV. Sollschwitz, Kreis Hoyerswerda, Bautzen Michalk, Sorbische Dialekttexte V. Michalk, Sorbische Dialekttexte VI. Jentsch a S. Michalk, Sorbischer Sprachatlas, zwjazk 1, Bautzen Michalk, Sorbischer Sprachatlas, zwjazk 2, Bautzen Michalk, Sorbischer Sprachatlas, zwjazk 3, Bautzen Michalk, Sorbischer Sprachatlas, zwjazk 5, Bautzen Michalk, Sorbischer Sprachatlas, zwjazk 6, Bautzen Michalk, Sorbischer Sprachatlas, zwjazk 7, Bautzen Michalk, Sorbischer Sprachatlas, zwjazk 9, Bautzen Michalk, Sorbischer Sprachatlas, zwjazk 10, Bautzen Flemming E.

Flemming, The relationship between coronal place and vowel backness, Phonology, —, Francescato G. Francescato, A case of coexistence of phonemic systems, Lingua, —86, Frencl A. Fries a Pike Ch. Fries a K. Pike, Coexistent Phonemic Systems, Language, 25 1 —50, Frinta A. Galunov V. Galunov a Garbaruk V. Galunov a V. Gudschinsky a dr. Gudschinsky, H.

Popovich a F. Hall a T. Hall, Phonologie. Hall b T. Hall, Typological generalizations concerning secondary palataliza- tion, Lingua, —25, b. Hall T. Halle a dr. Halle, B. Vaux a A. Hamer D. Haugen E. Hayward K. Hayward, Experimental Phonetics, Harlow Helmholtz H. Hockett Ch. Hockey a Fagyal B. Hockey a Z. Hrjehorjec L. Hume E. Jakobson a Halle R. Jakobson a M. Halle, Fundamentals of Language, The Hague Jakobson a Waugh R.

Jakobson a L. Jakoby W. Jassem W. Jassem, Podstawy fonetyki akustycznej, Warszawa Jassem a dr. Jassem, T. Jassem, M. Jentsch H. Jentsch a Michalk H. Michalk, Sorbische Dialekttexte IX. Johnson a dr. Johnson, M. Fernandez, M. Henniger a J. Sandstrum, Spectral integration in vowel perception: Matching and discrimination studies, Working Papers in Phonetics, s.

Johnson, P. Ladefoged a M. Lindau, Individual differences in vowel production, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 94 —, b. Jones D. Joos M. Joos, Acoustic Phonetics, Baltimore Jordan J. Jordan, Grammatik der wendisch-serbischen Sprache in der Oberlausitz, Prag Keating P. Essays in Honor of Peter Ladefoged, chapter 8, s. Kent a Read R. Kent a Ch. Kibrik A. Kibrik, Metodika polevych issledovanij k postanovke problemy , Moskva Klemensiewicz Z.

Kodzasov S. Kodzasov a Krivnova S. Kodzasov a O. Kral G. Kral, Grammatik der wendischen Sprache in der Oberlausitz, Bautzen Kuznecov P. Labov a dr. Labov, S. Ash a Ch. Boberg, Atlas of North American English. Phonetics, Phonology and Sound Change, Berlin Paradis, Category preservation and proximity versus phonetic approximation in loanword adaptation, Linguistic Inquiry, 36 2 —, Ladefoged P.

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