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The association with the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps goes back to This word is a survival of British slang bludger, meaning 'a prostitute's. Alphabetical list of the best destinations, places or sites for birds and wildlife in the world, the best destinations, places or sites to go birding or. have been permitted to join two of the London Pigeon Clubs. The diversity of the breeds Azores, or Madeira, or the Canaries, or Ireland, be sufficient? MAP LUXVILLE UNTUK CS SOURCE TORRENT Pros: support for Group Inc. For normal operation, these over slotted. The version of Belgian Football Association. You need to log out of per day worldwide Hardware Lab Troubleshooting.

A more literal use of bluey in Australian English is its application to fauna whose names begin with blue and which is predominantly blue in colour:. Ornithologists refer to them as some species of wood swallow They're all 'blueys' to us. There are two senses of the word bodgie in Australian English, both probably deriving from an earlier now obsolete word bodger.

The obsolete bodger probably derives from British dialect bodge 'to work clumsily'. In Australian English in the s and s bodger meant: 'Something or occasionally someone which is fake, false, or worthless'. The noun was also used adjectivally.

Typical uses:. Hardy, Power without Glory : This entailed the addition of as many more 'bodger' votes as possible. Baker, The Australian Language : An earlier underworld and Army use of bodger for something faked, worthless or shoddy. For example, a faked receipt or false name.. The word bodger was altered to bodgie , and this is now the standard form:.

White, Silent Reach : This heap is hot - else why did they give it a one-coat spray job over the original white duco and fix it with bodgie number plates? In the s another sense of bodgie arose. The word was used to describe a male youth, distinguished by his conformity to certain fashions of dress and larrikin behaviour; analogous to the British 'teddy boy':. This sense of bodgie seems to be an abbreviation of the word bodger with the addition of the -ie -y suffix.

One explanation for the development of the teenage larrikin sense was offered in the Age Melbourne in Mr Hewett says his research indicates that the term 'bodgie' arose around the Darlinghurst area in Sydney. It was just after the end of World War II and rationing had caused a flourishing black market in American-made cloth.

This sense of bodgie belongs primarily to the s, but bodgie in the sense 'fake, false, inferior, worthless' is alive and flourishing in Australian English. An uncultured and unsophisticated person; a boorish and uncouth person.

The early evidence is largely confined to teenage slang. Some lexicographers have suspected that the term may derive from the Bogan River and district in western New South Wales, but this is far from certain, and it seems more likely to be an unrelated coinage. The term became widespread after it was used in the late s by the fictitious schoolgirl 'Kylie Mole' in the television series The Comedy Company.

In the Daily Telegraph 29 November , in an article headed 'Same name a real bogan', a genuine schoolgirl named Kylie Mole 'reckons it really sux' " [i. Someone who wears their socks the wrong way or has the same number of holes in both legs of their stockings.

A complete loser'. The earliest evidence we have been able to find for the term is in the surfing magazine Tracks September 'So what if I have a mohawk and wear Dr Martens boots for all you uninformed bogans? In more recent years the term bogan has become more widely used and is often found in contexts that are neither derogatory or negative. The term has also generated a number of other terms including bogan chick , boganhood , and cashed-up bogan CUB.

She had a quiet, middle-class upbringing in Box Hill, attending a private girls' school. Our geographic reach is flexible; residents of Taree and like communities, for example, may readily qualify for Boganhood, usually with little or no burdensome paperwork. Affectionate, even I'm a bogan because I'm overweight. For further discussions of bogan see our Word of the Month article from Novemeber , and a article 'Bogan: from Obscurity to Australia's most productive Word' in our newsletter Ozwords.

To swim or bathe. Bogey is a borrowing from the Aboriginal Sydney Language. The earliest records show the term being used in the pidgin English of Aborigines:. Bogie d'oway. These were Colby's words on coming out of the water.

Dawson, Present State of Australia : 'Top bit, massa, bogy,' bathe and he threw himself into the water. Yes, said Mr Dixon, any two of ye that can swim. Harris, Settlers and Convicts : In the cool of the evening had a 'bogie' bathe in the river. Howell, Diggings and Bush : Florence was much amused the other evening by her enquiring if she Flory was going down to the water to have a 'bogey'.

Flory was much puzzled till she found out that a 'bogey', in colonial phraseology, meant a bath. Mackenzie, Aurukun Diary : A bogey is the Queensland outback word for a bath or bathe. A bogey hole is a 'swimming or bathing hole'. The verb is rare now in Australian English.

For an earlier discussion of bogey see our Word of the Month article from February A wave that forms over a submerged offshore reef or rock, sometimes in very calm weather or at high tide merely swelling but in other conditions breaking heavily and producing a dangerous stretch of broken water. The word is now commonly used for the reef or rock itself.

Horrobin Guide to Favourite Australian Fish ed. Bombora probably derives from the Aboriginal Sydney Language where it may have referred specifically to the current off Dobroyd Head, Port Jackson. The term is mostly used in New South Wales, where there are numerous bomboras along the coast, often close to cliffs. Used allusively to refer to a hasty departure or speedy action.

Bondi is the Sydney suburb renowned worldwide for its surf beach. Trams last ran on the line in , but the phrase has remained a part of Australian English. Bonzer is an adjective meaning 'surpassingly good, splendid, great'. Bonzer is possibly an alteration of the now obsolete Australian word bonster with the same meaning which perhaps ultimately derives from British dialect bouncer 'anything very large of its kind'. In the early records the spelling bonzer alternates with bonser , bonza , and bonzor.

The adjective, noun, and adverb are all recorded from the early years of the 20th century:. Yuong Jack Hansen undertook to sit him but failed at every attempt. Jack states he got a 'bonza on the napper', at one time when thrown. Cable By Blow and Kiss : Came back grinning widely, with the assurance that it [ sc. A fool or simpleton; a stupid person; an uncouth person. Boofhead derives from buffle-headed 'having a head like a buffalo' OED and bufflehead 'a fool, blockhead, stupid fellow' OED.

Bufflehead has disappeared from standard English, but survives in its Australian form boofhead. It was popularised by the use of boofhead as the name of a dimwitted comic strip character invented by R. Clark and introduced in the Sydney Daily Mail in May For an earlier discussion of the word see our Word of the Month article from December We get their boofheads so they can have ours.

Boomerang is an Australian word which has moved into International English. The word was borrowed from an Aboriginal language in the early years of European settlement, but the exact language is still uncertain. Early evidence suggests it was borrowed from a language in, or just south of, the Sydney region.

While the spelling boomerang is now standard, in the early period the word was given a variety of spellings: bomerang , bommerang , bomring , boomereng , boomering , bumerang [etc]. The Australian Aboriginal boomerang is a crescent-shaped wooden implement used as a missile or club, in hunting or warfare, and for recreational purposes. The best-known type of boomerang , used primarily for recreation, can be made to circle in flight and return to the thrower.

Although boomerang -like objects were known in other parts of the world, the earliest examples and the greatest diversity of design is found in Australia. A specimen of a preserved boomerang has been found at Wyrie Swamp in South Australia and is dated at 10, years old. Boomerangs were not known throughout the entirety of Australia, being absent from the west of South Australia, the north Kimberley region of Western Australia, north-east Arnhem Land, and Tasmania. In some regions boomerangs are decorated with designs that are either painted or cut into the wood.

Very early in Australian English the term boomerang was used in transferred and figurative senses, especially with reference to something which returns to or recoils upon its author. These senses are now part of International English, but it is interesting to look at the earliest Australian evidence for the process of transfer and figurative use:.

By the s boomerang had also developed as a verb in Australian English, meaning 'to hit someone or something with a boomerang; to throw something in the manner of a boomerang'. By the s the verbal sense developed another meaning: 'to return in the manner of a boomerang; to recoil upon the author ; to ricochet'.

The earliest evidence for this sense occurs in the Brisbane Worker newspaper from 16 May Australia's a big country An' Freedom's humping bluey And Freedom's on the wallaby Oh don't you hear her Cooee, She's just begun to boomerang She'll knock the tyrants silly. On 13 November the Canberra Times reported that 'Greg Chappell's decision to send England in appeared to have boomeranged'. These verbal senses of boomerang have also moved into International English.

For a further discussion of boomerang see the article 'Boomerang, Boomerang, Thou Spirit of Australia! The phrase is first recorded in the s. A tax avoidance scheme. In the late s a large number of bottom of the harbour schemes were operating in corporate Australia.

The term is usually used attributively. Hyland Diamond Dove : The feller in the dock was some fabulous creature - part lawyer, part farmer - who'd been caught in a bottom-of-the-harbour tax avoidance scheme. An employee responsible for maintaining the outer fences on a station, or a publicly owned vermin-proof fence. This sense of boundary rider is recorded from the s but in more recent years, as a result of changes in technology and modes of transport, this occupation has become relatively rare.

Since the s the term has been used of a boundary umpire in Australian Rules Football, a cricketer in a fielding position near the boundary, and a roving reporter at a sporting game. For a more detailed discussion of the original sense of boundary rider and the later sporting senses see our Word of the Month article from December McGinnis Tracking North : Mechanisation had finally reached the open-range country.

There were no more pumpers or boundary riders. Be the unlikely winner of an event; to win an event coming from well behind. The phrase comes from the name of Steven Bradbury, who won a gold medal in speed skating at the Winter Olympics after his opponents fell. For a detailed discussion of this phrase see our blog 'Doing a Bradbury: an Aussie term born in the Winter Olympics' which includes a video of Bradbury's famous win , and our Word of the Month article from August The Socceroos need some of that luck.

The practice of improperly increasing the membership of a local branch of a political party in order to ensure the preselection of a particular candidate. The term is a specific use of branch meaning 'a local division of a political party'. While the practice described by branch stacking has been around for a very long time, the word itself is first recorded in the s.

Leaving immediately; making a hasty departure; at full speed. It is likely that this expression was first used in horseracing to refer to a horse that moved very quickly out of the starting gates. Bray Blossom : 'Come on youse blokes! First sign of a better offer and they are off like a bride's nightie. An invitation to bring a plate of food to share at a social gathering or fundraiser.

There are many stories of new arrivals in Australia being bamboozled by the instruction to bring a plate. As the locals know, a plate alone will not do. In earlier days the request was often ladies a plate , sometimes followed by gentlemen a donation. Ladies bring a plate. Please bring a plate. All welcome. A wild horse. The origin for this term is still disputed. Curr in Australian Race gives booramby meaning 'wild' in the language of the Pitjara or Pidjara or Bidjara people of the region at the headwaters of the Warrego and Nogoa Rivers in south-western Queensland.

This is in the general location of the earliest evidence, but the language evidence has not been subsequently confirmed. This origin was popularised by Paterson in an introduction to his poem 'Brumby's run' printed in A common suggestion is that brumby derives from the proper name Brumby. This theory was also noted by E.

Morris in Austral English in 'A different origin was, however, given by an old resident of New South Wales, to a lady of the name Brumby, viz. Over the years, various Messrs Brumby have been postulated as the origin. More recently, Dymphna Lonergan suggested that the word comes from Irish word bromaigh , the plural form of the word for a young horse, or colt. For a more detailed discussion concerning the origin of the term brumby see the article 'Wild Horses Running Wild' in our Ozwords newsletter.

McGinnis Wildhorse Creek : The country's rotten with brumbies. A forlorn hope; no prospect whatever. One explanation for the origin of the term is that it comes from the name of the convict William Buckley, who escaped from Port Phillip in and lived for 32 years with Aboriginal people in southern Victoria. A second explanation links the phrase to the Melbourne firm of Buckley and Nunn established in , suggesting that a pun developed on the 'Nunn' part of the firm's name with 'none' and that this gave rise to the formulation 'there are just two chances, Buckley's and none'.

This second explanation appears to have arisen after the original phrase was established. For an earlier discussion about the origin of the term buckley's chance see the article 'Buckley's' in our Ozwords newsletter. It should have been Buckley. Olympus explains that he altered it because he didn't want the Fitzroy men to have 'Buckley's chance'.

A pair of close-fitting male swimming briefs made of stretch fabric. The Australian term is probably a variation of the international English grape smugglers for such a garment. Budgie smugglers is one of the numerous Australian words for this particular garment others include bathers , cossies , speedos , swimmers , and togs. Budgie is a shortening of budgerigar - from Kamilaroi an Aboriginal language of northern New South Wales and southern Queensland , and designates a small green and yellow parrot which has become a popular caged bird.

The term is a jocular allusion to the appearance of the garment. Budgie smugglers is first recorded in the late s. For a more detailed discussion of the word see our Word of the Month article from December That, and a thin pair of Speedos so figure-hugging you can see every goosebump - flimsy togs that are known not-all-that-affectionately by us Brown boys as budgie smugglers!

A kind of fine powdery dirt or dust, often found in inland Australia. Roads or tracks covered with bulldust may be a hazard for livestock and vehicles, which can become bogged in it. It is probably called bulldust because it resembles the soil trampled by cattle in stockyards. The word can also be used as a polite way of saying bullshit. Both senses of the word are first recorded in the s. This 'bull' dust might be about two feet deep, and cakes on the surface, so that it is hard to penetrate.

I told him that nothing would get within a 'bull's roar' of Agricolo to interfere with him, and such was the case. The term is often found in this phrasal form where it now has several meanings: 'to be financially bankrupt, to come to nought; to fail, to collapse, to break down'. These figurative senses of bung emerged in the late 19th century. An amphibious monster supposed to inhabit inland waterways.

Descriptions of it vary greatly. Some give it a frightful human head and an animal body. Many descriptions emphasise its threat to humans and its loud booming at night. It inhabits inland rivers, swamps, and billabongs. The word comes from the Aboriginal Wathaurong language of Victoria. Bunyip is first recorded in the s.

For a more detailed discussion of this word see the article 'There's a Bunyip Close behind us and he's Treading on my Tail' in our Ozwords newsletter. Venture an attempt; give something a try. This is an Australian alteration of the standard English phrase give it a whirl. Give it a burl is first recorded in the early years of the 20th century.

We'll give it a burl, eh? We wanted to give it a burl and see how it went. We'd do it again. What do you think this is, bush week? These senses of bush week go back to the early 20th century. The phrase originally implied the notion that people from the country are easily fooled by the more sophisticated city slickers. The speaker resents being mistaken for a country bumpkin. Glassop Lucky Palmer : I get smart alecks like you trying to put one over on me every minute of the day.

What do you think this is? Bush Week? Murray Goodbye Lullaby : They had already been warned about the breastfeeding business Beat it, you two! The act or process of criticising the Australian Government and its bureaucracy. Canberra , the capital of Australia, has been used allusively to refer to the Australian Government and its bureaucracy since the s.

The term Canberra bashing emerged in the s, and is also applied in criticisms of the city itself. For a more detailed discussion of the term see our Word of the Month article from February Politicians on both sides have shown a willingness to put the boot into a national capital.

In a political context a decision made by a party leader etc. This term also takes the form captain's call. Captain's pick is derived from sporting contexts in which a team captain has the discretion to choose members of the team. The political sense emerged in Australian English in For a more detailed discussion of this term see our Word of the Month article from January To die; to break down; to fail.

Also spelt kark , and often taking the form cark it. The word is probably a figurative use of an earlier Australian sense of cark meaning 'the caw of a crow', which is imitative. Beilby Gunner : 'That wog ya roughed up - well, he karked. A derogatory term for a person who espouses left-wing views but enjoys an affluent lifestyle.

It is modelled on the originally British term, champagne socialist , which has a similar meaning. The term chardonnay socialist appeared in the s, not long after the grape variety Chardonnay became very popular with Australian wine drinkers. Williamson Emerald City : I'm going to keep charting their perturbations.. A checkout operator at a supermarket. This term usually refers to female checkout operators hence chick , an informal word for a young woman , but with changes in the gender makeup of the supermarket workforce the term is occasionlly applied to males.

Checkout chick is first recorded in the s. For a more detailed discussion of the term see our Word of the Month article from May A domestic fowl; a chicken. Chook comes from British dialect chuck y 'a chicken; a fowl' which is a variant of chick. Chook is the common term for the live bird, although chook raffles , held in Australian clubs and pubs, have ready-to-cook chooks as prizes.

The term has also been transferred to refer to other birds, and often in the form old chook it can refer to a woman. See our Word of the Month articles 'chook run' and 'chook lit' for further uses of chook. First recorded as chuckey in Was he looking after the housemaid or the little chookies?

A jocular curse. This expression recalls an earlier time when many Australians kept chooks domestic chickens in the backyard and the dunny was a separate outhouse. Although I must say this is a very cunning, contrived piece of legislation, if that is what they set out to do. May their chooks turn into emus and kick their dunnies down. To vomit. Chunder possibly comes from a once-popular cartoon character, 'Chunder Loo of Akim Foo', drawn by Norman Lindsay for a series of boot polish advertisements in the early s.

It is possible that 'Chunder Loo' became rhyming slang for spew. Chunder , however, is the only form to be recorded. The earliest evidence is associated with Australian troops in action to the north of Australia during the Second World War. Makes you chunda. Something that is largely illusory or exists in name only; a poor substitute or imitation. This word derives from the proprietary name of a soft drink, sold in a bottle that looked like a whisky bottle, and marketed from as 'the drink you have when you're not having a drink'.

For a more detailed discussion of the word see our blog 'The evolution of a word - the case of Clayton's'. Pung Growing up Asian in Australia : My bikini top is crammed so full of rubbery 'chicken fillets' I'd probably bounce if you threw me.

These Clayton's breasts jiggle realistically when I jump up and down on the spot. An unbranded animal. In the pastoral industry an animal that has not been branded with a mark identifying the owner can easily be stolen or lost. The word is first recorded in the s. There are several transferred and figurative senses of cleanskin that evolved from the orgininal sense.

In the first decade of the 20th century cleanskin began to be used to describe 'an Aboriginal person who has not passed through an initiation rite'. Also from this period on cleanskin was used figuratively of 'a person who has no criminal record; a person new to a situation or activity and lacking experience'. From the s cleanskin was also used of 'a bottle of wine without a label that identifies the maker, sold at a price cheaper than comparable labelled bottles; the wine in such a bottle'.

Keenan The Horses too are Gone : In the rangelands an unbranded calf becomes a cleanskin and cleanskins belong to the first person capable of planting a brand on the rump. A friend, a companion. The word probably derives from the Yiddish word chaber 'comrade'. It is likely that these terms, as well as cobber , found their way into London slang especially from the Jewish population living in the East End , and from there, via British migrants, into Australian English.

It is sometimes suggested that cobber derives from British dialect. The English Dialect Dictionary lists the word cob 'to take a liking to any one; to "cotton" to', but the evidence is from only one Suffolk source, and the dictionary adds: 'Not known to our other correspondents'. This Suffolk word is sometimes proposed as the origin of cobber , but its dialect evidence is very limited.

Cobber , now somewhat dated, is rarely used by young Australians. A small-scale farmer; in later use often applied to a substantial landowner or to the rural interest generally. In Australia there are a number of cockies including cow cockies , cane cockies and wheat cockies.

Cocky arose in the s and is an abbreviation of cockatoo farmer. This was then a disparaging term for small-scale farmers, probably because of their habit of using a small area of land for a short time and then moving on, in the perceived manner of cockatoos feeding. A person sentenced in the British Isles to a term of penal servitude in an Australian Colony. The foundations of European settlement in Australia are based on the transportation of tens of thousands of prisoners from the British Isles.

The word is a specific use of convict 'a condemned criminal serving a sentence of penal servitude' OED. While in America convict is still used to refer to a prisoner, in Australia it is now largely historical. For a further discussion of this word see our blog 'A long lost convict: Australia's "C-word"? Angas Description of the Barossa Range : No convicts are transported to this place, for South Australia is not a penal colony.

Originally a call used by an Aboriginal person to communicate with someone at a distance; later adopted by settlers and now widely used as a signal, especially in the bush; a name given to the call. The iconic call of the Australian bush comes from the Aboriginal Sydney language word gawi or guwi meaning 'come here'. Cooee is recorded from the early years of European settlement in Sydney. It is often found in the phrase within cooee meaning 'within earshot; within reach, near'.

Cunningham Two Years in New South Wales : In calling to each other at a distance, the natives make use of the word Coo-ee , as we do the word Hollo , prolonging the sound of the coo , and closing that of the ee with a shrill jerk. Lambert Watermen : If I ever see you within coo-ee of my boat again, I'll drown you. The term coolibah is best known from the opening lines of Banjo Paterson's lyrics for the song Waltzing Matilda :.

The word is a borrowing from Yuwaaliyaay and neighbouring languages , an Aboriginal language of northern New South Wales. In the earlier period it was was spelt in various ways, including coolabah , coolobar , and coolybah. It is term for any of several eucalypts, especially the blue-leaved Eucalyptus microtheca found across central and northern Australia, a fibrous-barked tree yielding a durable timber and occurring in seasonally flooded areas.

Coolibah is first recorded in the s. Bad, unpleasant or unsatisfactory: Things were crook on the land in the seventies. Crook means bad in a general sense, and also in more specific senses too: unwell or injured a crook knee , and dishonest or illegal he was accused of crook dealings. All senses are recorded from the s. Pratt Wolaroi's Cup : Most stables.. Clune Roaming Round the Darling : My cobber, here, used to sing in opera.

He's a pretty crook singer, but he'll sing for you. Used to indicate the need for a rest in order to settle down, solve a problem, etc. The phrase now often with some variations was originally the title of a a revue at the Phillip Street Theatre in Sydney Not anymore. A native-born Australian. These terms are now obsolete.

These were called currency. An unfashionable person; a person lacking style or character; a socially awkward adolescent, a 'nerd'. These senses of dag derive from an earlier Australian sense of dag meaning 'a "character", someone eccentric but entertainingly so'. Ultimately all these senses of dag are probably derived from the British dialect especially in children's speech sense of dag meaning a 'feat of skill', 'a daring feat among boys', and the phrase to have a dag at meaning 'to have a shot at'.

The Australian senses of dag may have also been influenecd by the word wag a habitual joker , and other Australian senses of dag referring to sheep see rattle your dags below. Dag referring to an unfashionable person etc. Never ever wear a striped suit, a striped shirt and a striped tie together - just dreadful You look like a real dag. Hurry up, get a move on. When a daggy sheep runs, the dried dags knock together to make a rattling sound.

The word dag originally daglock was a British dialect word that was borrowed into mainstream Australian English in the s. Thorne Battler : C'mon Mum, rattle yer dags - the old girls are hungry! To pull down or remove the trousers from a person as a joke or punishment. Dak derives from another Australian term daks meaning 'a pair of trousers'. The term is first recorded from the early s but is probably much older than that.

For a more detailed discussion of dak see our Word of the Month article from July His family didn't know about it until he was dacked during a game this year. A simple kind of bread, traditionally unleavened and baked in the ashes of an outdoor fire. Because it was the most common form of bread for bush workers in the nineteenth century, to earn your damper means to be worth your pay.

Bisley Stillways : We made damper out of flour and water, squeezed it around green sticks to cook over the coals. A commemorative ceremony held at dawn on Anzac Day. Anzac Day, April 25, is a national public holiday in Australia commemorating all those who have served and died in war.

While commemorative services have been held on April 25 since , the term dawn service is not recorded until the s. The didgeridoo is a wind instrument that was originally found only in Arnhem Land in northern Australia. It is a long, wooden, tubular instrument that produces a low-pitched, resonant sound with complex, rhythmic patterns but little tonal variation. In popular understanding many Australians probably believe that this is an Aboriginal word. Indeed, the edition of the Australian National Dictionary attributed it to the Yolngu language of northern Queensland.

Subsequent research has cast doubt on this etymology, and in the following statement was made in Australian Aboriginal Words in English : 'Although it has been suggested that this must be a borrowing from an Australian language it is not one. The name probably evolved from white people's ad hoc imitation of the sound of the instrument'. This argument is supported by two of the earliest pieces of evidence for the term:. It produces but one sound - 'didjerry, didjerry, didjerry -' and so on ad infinitum.

The term was applied during the First World War to Australian and New Zealand soldiers because so much of their time was spent digging trenches. First recorded in this sense It came to France when the sandgropers gave up digging on the goldfields of W. They include a major who planned an 'unprecedented operation' to capture a rogue Afghan sergeant who murdered three Australian diggers. Reliable; genuine; honest; true. This word is a shortening of fair dinkum which comes from British dialect.

The compound fair dinkum 'fair dealing which is just and equitable' is recorded from Lincolnshire in , and is the equivalent of West Yorkshire fair doos fair dealing. The adjective is first recorded in Australia from the s. For a more detailed discussion of dinkum see the article 'The Story of Dinkum' on our blog. The starting point is to make the debate more dinkum. The phrase was first recorded in This may give a clue to the source of the phrase.

If you are done like a dinner , you are completely and efficiently demolished. Bride Letters from Victorian Pioneers : The horse swam for a quarter of a mile down the river with the cart after him.. To inform upon someone ; to incriminate someone. The word is probably related to British dialect dob meaning 'to put down an article heavily or clumsily; to throw down', and 'to throw stones etc. Dob is first recorded in the s. For a more detailed discussion of this term see the article 'The Story of Dob' on our blog.

Bisley Stillways : He used to sell single cigarettes to kids, and although it was common knowledge, he had never been busted and no one ever dobbed on him. This example illustrates the way the origins of words and phrases can be lost with changes in technology.

The expression has several variants including fed up to dolly's wax , and its meaning does not always denote being 'full' with food. First recorded in the early 20th century. And I am fed up to dolly's wax with them. In a preferential system of voting a vote recorded by allocating preferences according to the order in which candidates' names appear on the ballot paper; such votes viewed collectively.

Voters who merely number the candidates in the order they are listed on the ballot paper without regard for the merits of the candidates are casting a donkey vote - that is, a stupid vote. First recorded in the early midth century. In South Australia this vote - the 'donkey vote' - will go to the Anti-Communists. A parliamentary question asked of a Minister by a member of the party in government to give the Minister the opportunity to deliver a prepared reply.

It comes from Dorothy Dix , the pen-name of Elizabeth Gilmer , an American journalist who wrote a famous personal advice column which was syndicated in Australia. Her column came to seem a little too contrived, as if she was writing the questions as well as the answers. For a discussion about the use of Dorothy Dixer in rhyming slang see the article 'Dorothies and Michelles' in our Ozwords newsletter. One of those came from Mr Hutchin, and there were cries of 'Dorothy Dix' when he asked it When a Minister is anxious to make some information available, or to answer some outside criticism, he will often get a private member to ask a question on the subject.

And it was not her husky voice or hair or makeup that stopped traffic, but the rows and rows of pearls.. In traditional Aboriginal belief a collection of events beyond living memory that shaped the physical, spiritual, and moral world; the era in which these occurred; an Aboriginal person's consciousness of the enduring nature of the era.

The term also takes the form dreaming. Dreamtime is a translation of alcheringa - a word from the Arrernte Aboriginal language of the Alice Springs region in central Australia. Attenborough Quest Under Capricorn : Although the Dreamtime was in the past, it is also co-existent with the present, and a man, by performing the rituals, can become one with his 'dreaming' and experience eternity. It is to seek this mystical union that the men enact the ceremonies. A fool, a simpleton, an idiot.

There is also a bird called a drongo. The spangled drongo is found in northern and eastern Australia, as well as in the islands to the north of Australia, and further north to India and China. It is called a drongo because that is the name of a bird from the same family in northern Madagascar. The spangled drongo is not a stupid bird. It is not a galah.

One book describes it thus: 'The spangled drongo catches insects in the air, chasing them in aerobatic flight'. There is one odd story about the drongo, however: unlike most migratory birds, it appears to migrate to colder regions in winter. Some have suggested that this is the origin of the association of 'stupidity' with the term drongo. But this seems most unlikely. So what is the true story? There was an Australian racehorse called Drongo during the early s.

It seems likely that he was named after the bird called the 'drongo'. He often came very close to winning major races, but in 37 starts he never won a race. In a writer in the Melbourne Argus comments: 'Drongo is sure to be a very hard horse to beat. He is improving with every run'. But he never did win. Soon after the horse's retirement it seems that racegoers started to apply the term to horses that were having similarly unlucky careers.

Soon after the term became more negative, and was applied also to people who were not so much 'unlucky' as 'hopeless cases', 'no-hopers', and thereafter 'fools'. In the s it was applied to recruits in the Royal Australian Air Force. It has become part of general Australian slang. Buzz Kennedy, writing in The Australian newspaper in , defines a drongo thus:. A drongo is a simpleton but a complicated one: he is a simpleton [of the] sort who not only falls over his feet but does so at Government House; who asks his future mother-in-law to pass-the-magic-word salt the first time the girl asks him home In an emergency he runs heroically in the wrong direction.

If he were Superman he would get locked in the telephone box. He never wins. So he is a drongo. The origin of the term was revived at Flemington in when a Drongo Handicap was held. Only apprentice jockeys were allowed to ride. The horses entered were not allowed to have won a race in the previous twelve months. Goode Through the Farm Gate : I can't believe my drongo of a father is asking such ridiculous questions. A jocular name for an imaginary animal similar in appearance to a koala, with very sharp jaws and teeth, that is said to devour tourists etc.

The term is often associated with the fooling of gullible international tourists, and has accordingly been used this way in television advertisements. There are suggestions that the term drop bear emerged in the Second World War period see quotation below but the first record is from the s. Keesing Lily on a Dustbin : The 'drop bears' are creatures of a tall story - they were invented during World War II for the benefit of gullible American servicemen.

It is alleged that 'drop bears' are a dangerous kind of koala and that they drop out of trees on the heads and shoulders of bush walkers and hug them to death. Colbert The Ranch : The other Harry has got a head like a drover's dog and always wears a hat.

Courtenay: We'd heard Nancy say he'd come back like a drover's dog all prick and ribs. Look out - female approaching! A warning cry from a male as a signal to other men that a woman is approaching a traditionally all-male environment. It is a reminder that the men should modify their language and behaviour to avoid giving offence.

It was first used in shearing sheds, but is now heard in other places, especially in a pub. While the first written evidence comes from the early s the phrase probably goes back several decades earlier. Fatty Vautin and Peter Sterling reportedly held angry meetings with their producer declaring they would not speak to Wilson if she was hired.

A toilet. The dunny was originally any outside toilet. In cities and towns the pan-type dunny was emptied by the dunny man , who came round regularly with his dunny cart. Dunny can now be used for any toilet. First recorded in the s but dunnekin is attested in Australian sources from the s. To subject a person to a torrent of words; to talk at great length to; to harangue. While not a physical beating of the ears, most people can sympathise with a person who has sustained a long taking to an ear-bashing by a boring or obnoxious windbag an earbasher.

The verb is first recorded from the s, and possibly comes from Australian military slang of the Second World War period. Most Australians are surprised to discover that this is an Australian term. First recorded from the s. The ALP contains many influential spokesmen who advocate disengagement of governments from existing agricultural assistance measures.. The act or process of picking up litter; a group of people doing this; the act or process of searching an area of ground for something.

This term developed out of an earlier verbal form recorded in the s , emu-bob , meaning 'to pick up pieces of timber, roots, etc. By the s the verb had developed a more specific sense: 'to pick up litter'. By the s the verbal form had developed into the noun. The term is used with allusion to an emu bending its neck toward the ground in search of food.

A portable insulated container in which food and drink are kept cool. A common sight at barbecues, beaches, parks, and camping grounds in the summer months. Esky is from a proprietary name of a portable insulated container, earlier an ice chest, and also earlier called Eskimo.

The Esky Auto Box keeps drinks and food cold and fresh wherever you go. Will fit in the boot of any car. Winton Dirt Music : They have a folding table and esky out here on the sand beside the fire. A prison for the confinement of female convicts. Also known as a female factory. The first such factory was established in at Parramatta in New South Wales. It was a place of punishment, a labour and marriage agency for the colony, and a profit-making textiles factory where women made convict clothing and blankets.

There were eight other factories in the Australian convict settlements. Australia often sees itself as an egalitarian society, the land of the fair go , where all citizens have a right to fair treatment. It is often used as an exclamation: fair go Kev, give the kids a turn! Sometimes it expresses disbelief: fair go—the tooth fairy? For further discussion of this term see the article 'Australia - the land of the fair go' on our blog.

Both men turned pale, but struggled, calling out, 'Read the warrants to us first'. Inspector Ahern said, 'You can hear them later', and the police seized the prisoners. Both appealed to Mr. Ranking, crying out, 'Do you call this a fair go, Mr. Dubosarsky Fairy Bread : The morning of the party, Becky and her mother were in the kitchen making fairy bread. Her baby brother sat on the floor eating the bits that fell off the table. Steady on, be reasonable. In Australian opposition leader Kevin Rudd famously used a variant of the phrase: 'fair shake of the sauce bottle'.

Fair suck of the sauce bottle is first recorded in the s. For a further discussion of the origin of the phrase see the article 'Folk Etymology in Australian English' in our Ozwords newsletter. As elsewhere, in Australia feral describes a domesticated animal that has gone wild. But in Australia the adjective has another meaning ' especially of a person wild, uncontrolled; unconventional; outside the conventional bounds of society; dirty, scruffy. Feral is also used as a noun to mean 'a person living outside the conventional bounds of society; a wild or uncontrolled person.

The Australian senses of the adjective and noun are first recorded in the s. The women clashed with media crews and politicians in a series of well-documented incidents They were quite happy with the 'feral' tag. They have invaded people's homes and maliciously destroyed victims' property. A firefighter. Firie follows a common pattern in Australian informal English whereby a word is abbreviated in this case firefighter or fireman and the -ie or -y suffix is added.

Other examples include barbie a barbecue , Chrissy Christmas , and rellie a relative. Firie is recorded from the s. Ostentatious, showy and a bit too flashily dressed. This phrase is usually used of a man, and implies that although he may be well-dressed and well-groomed, there is also something a bit dodgy about him. In spite of a superficial smartness, he is not to be trusted. In spite of the gold tooth, he is still a rat. Eddie is as flash as a rat with a gold tooth.

McNab Dodger : What brought him unstuck were his brazen schemes and lavish lifestyle. He was as flash as a rat with a gold tooth. Extremely busy, at top speed. The literal sense is to lie fully stretched out like a lizard , and the figurative sense means as fast as possible. The phrase also alludes to the rapid tongue-movement of a drinking lizard. To search or rummage for something. Cornish miners probably brought the term to Australia in the s and used it to describe their search for gold.

Australia inherited a number of mining terms from the Cornish, but they remain very specialised, and fossick is the only one to move out into the wider speech community. Heidke Claudia's Big Break : 'Okay, we get the picture', said Sophie as she fossicked around in her enormous bag in search of boarding passes. Like Fremantle, many towns have given it a local name.

Albany, Geraldton, Esperance, Eucla and Perth all have their doctor. The term derives from the figurative application of doctor in the West Indies to 'a cool sea breeze which usually prevails during part of the day in summer', and in South Africa to 'a strong, blustery south-east wind prevailing at the Cape', from doctor 'any agent that gives or preserves health'.

Fremantle doctor is recorded from the s. At Perth, with the Fremantle Doctor up his arse, he was seriously quick. A rumour or false report; an absurd story. Furphy comes from the name of a firm, J. The term probably originated at the Broadmeadows army camp in Melbourne as a transfer from the name of the carts to the typical gossip of soldiers at sites serviced by these carts during the period of the First World War.

Furphy is first recorded in Some of the troops do not suffer from lack of imagination. In early records it is variously spelt as galar , gillar , gulah , etc. The bird referred to is the grey-backed, pink-breasted cockatoo Eolophus roseicapillus , occurring in all parts of Australia except the extreme north-east and south-west.

It is also known as the red-breasted cockatoo and rose-breasted cockatoo. Some early settlers used the galah as food. In the Truth newspaper reports: 'The sunburnt residents of at that God-forsaken outpost of civilisation were subsisting on stewed galah and curried crow'. Some writers report that galah pie was a popular outback dish. The galah, which usually appears in a large flock, has a raucous call, and it was perhaps this trait which produced the term galah session for a period allocated for private conversation, especially between women on isolated stations, over an outback radio network.

Flynn in Northern Gateway writes: 'The women's radio hour, held regularly night and morning and referred to everywhere as the 'Galah Session'. It is a special time set aside for lonely station women to chat on whatever subject they like'. More generally, a galah session is 'a long chat' - A. Garve, Boomerang : 'For hours the three men chatted It was Dawes who said at last, "I reckon this galah session's gone on long enough".

Very commonly in Australian English galah is used to refer to a fool or idiot. This figurative sense is recorded from the s, and derives from the perceived stupidity of the bird. The following quotations give an indication of how the term is used:. Lambert Twenty Thousand Thieves : 'Yair, and I got better ideas than some of the galahs that give us our orders'.

Porteous Cattleman : 'The bloke on the other end of the line is only some useless galah tryin' to sell a new brand of dip'. O'Grady Aussie Etiket : 'You would be the greatest bloody galah this side of the rabbit-proof fence'. From this sense arise a number of colloquial idioms. To be mad as a gumtree full of galahs is to be completely crazy.

To make a proper galah of oneself is to make a complete fool of oneself. A pack of galahs is a group of contemptibly idiotic people. An abberviation of good day , a familiar greeting, used frequently and at any hour. While the word is recorded from the s, it came to international prominence in the s through a series of tourism advertisements where Australian actor and comedian Paul Hogan invited people from around the world to visit Australia and say g'day.

Harms Memoirs of a Mug Punter : I made it to the table where the prime minister was wielding his pen. He looked up. He didn't recognise me. In International English geek means 'a person who is socially inept or boringly conventional or studious'.

The sense comes from the United States, where it originally referred to an assistant at a sideshow whose purpose was to appear an object of disgust or derision. The American word appears to be a variant of geck , a Scottish word from Dutch meaning 'a gesture of derision; an expression of scorn or contempt'. In more recent times the word has been increasingly applied to a person who is obsessed with computers and computer technology.

In Australia, however, there is another meaning of the word geek. It means 'a look', and usually appears in the phrase to have or take a geek at. It is also used as a verb. This Australian sense derives from British dialect Scottish and Northern England keek meaning 'to look, to peep'.

The Australian form geek appears as a verb in Cornish meaning 'to peep, peer, spy', and this is likely to be the same word as the northern keek. The lateness of the word in Australian English, however, suggests a borrowing from the northern dialects rather than from Cornish. Both Australian senses of the noun and verb are recorded from the early 20th century.

Hungerford Sowers of Wind : There's a circus down by the dance-hall, a Jap show What about having a geek at that? The cafe has gained a steady stream of regulars for coffee, breakfast, lunch or a geek at the bikes. Haiti The island of Hispaniola supports over 30 endemic bird species although one, Grey-crowned Palm-tanager, is confined to Haiti, at the western end of the island shared with the Dominican Republic.

Also present in and around the park are West Indian Whistling-duck, Broad-billed Tody, Palmchat both at the botanical gardens and many other species which also occur in the Dominican Republic. As for the rest of Haiti well this is the poorest, most environmentally degraded country in the Caribbean, a country composed mainly of rugged highlands rising to m at Pic La Selle in the southeast.

The slopes of these mountains were once cloaked in beautiful forests but only tiny fragments remain and therefore few tree-dwelling birds, but the peaks do support the only known significant breeding populations of Black-capped Petrel. The best time to visit is mid-March to mid-April when many resident birds start to breed and wintering species are joined by spring migrants heading to North America. Hawaii About 30 endemic landbirds, 26 on the main islands, including three elepaios small monarch flycatchers , three solitaires Olomao, Omao and Puaiohi , and 16 'honeycreepers' now in the finch family which occur only on the islands of Hawaii, seabirds such as Laysan Albatross, Red-tailed and White-tailed Tropicbirds, Great Frigatebird, Common White Tern, Red-footed Booby and Hawaiian Petrel, Bristle-thighed Curlew and the Hawaiian form of Black-necked Stilt, Spinner Dolphins, Manta Rays, Green Turtles, coral reef fish, Humpback Whales and the chance to see rivers of molten lava pouring out of one of the most consistently active volcanoes in the world.

Holland Tens of thousands of geese, with a good chance of Lesser White-fronted, as well as swans and Smews in winter, and hundreds of thousands of shorebirds during late summer. Situated on the tropical west coast, the white, palm-fringed beaches are a major tourist attraction, but the state is also a great place for birds, from the coast where the lakes, marshes, mudflats and mangroves support a wide range of waterbirds to the foothill forests of the Western Ghats at the eastern end of the state where it is possible to see some of the 33 Southern India endemics and 31 species shared with Sri Lanka.

The best time to look for birds is during the northern winter and in two weeks it is possible to see well over species. Brahminy Kite. One of the many spectacular birds easily seen at Goa. The beautiful Grandala, one of a flock which these birds usually occur in, by Jon Hornbuckle.

India - Northwestern The best place in the world to look for Snow Leopards, in the high mountains of Ladakh. Indonesia - Bali The numerous top birding destinations of Indonesia include the island of Bali, just across the narrow Bali Strait to the east of Java, where the very rare and very beautiful white Bali Myna is being reintroduced not very successfully to Bali Barat National Park, where remnant open lowland deciduous forest and coastal habitats also support Grey-rumped Black-winged Myna, Great-billed Heron, Javan Plover and Javan Banded Pitta.

Indonesia - Java An extraordinary 40 endemic birds including a trogon, a broadbill and a cochoa, and another 28 species shared only with Sumatra and Bali, including Javan Woodcock, Javan Kingfisher, Javan Banded Pitta and Java Sparrow, as well as Green Peafowl, Christmas Frigatebird and Blue Nuthatch, and some beautiful mammals such as Javan Gibbon, and leaf monkeys. The best time to look for birds is mid-August to October. At the far eastern end of the Lesser Sundas not far from Australia are the Tanimbar Islands in the Southern Moluccas Maluku where the 15 endemic birds include a scrubfowl most likely on a small satellite island , a monarch and two thrushes.

The main island Yamdena is accessible by air from Ambon. Black-banded Flycatcher, by Lars Petersson , a striking bird which occurs only on the island of Timor. Indonesia - Moluccas Maluku There are more than endemic bird species in the Moluccas, of which 46 occur in the north on Halmahera and nearby islands, and 49 in the centre mainly on Buru and Seram.

North of Halmahera is the island of Morotai with three endemics; a pitta, a friarbird and a white-eye. For more information see Indonesia - Sulawesi and Halmahera. To the south are the islands of Bacan with one endemic and Obi with seven; an imperial-pigeon, a fruit-dove, a myzomela, a whistler, a fantail, a paradise-crow and a bulbul, although the island races of Variable Goshawk, Spangled Drongo, Moluccan Monarch, Cream-throated White-eye and Common Cicadabird may all be considered to be full species one day.

In the Central Moluccas the island of Buru supports 20 endemics including a racquet-tail and a very strange bird called Madanga. Formerly known as Rufous-throated Dark-eye it is now placed in the pipit family although it lives in montane elfin forest and climbs up and down tree trunks!

The rare Buru endemics, including Madanga, survive in remnant mountain forests as usual and include a mountain-pigeon, a lorikeet, a parrot, a honeyeater and a thrush. The small mountainous island of Ambon next to Seram is the regional hub for visiting the Central and Southern Moluccas including the adjacent island of Haruku which has one of the best protected breeding sites for Moluccan Scrubfowl.

The peak time to look for the birds of the Moluccas is August. These islands, especially Sulawesi, also support several striking mammals, not least macaques and tarsiers, and are surrounded by some of the richest coral reefs on Earth. Indonesia - Sulawesi's satellites The largely deforested island of Sangihe lies in the Celebes Sea between Sulawesi and the island of Mindanao in the Philippines.

Accessible from Manado on Sulawesi, it supports eight endemic birds; some, like the scops-owl, hanging-parrot and sunbird, are widespread but it is necessary to climb Gunung Sahendaruman to stand a chance of seeing the very rare Cerulean Paradise-flycatcher, as well as the whistler, the critically endangered Sangihe Golden Bulbul and the virtually unknown endemic white-eye.

To the east is the island of Talaud where there are five endemics; a rail, a bush-hen, a kingfisher, a lory and a pitta, which occur along with Philippine Scrubfowl, Nicobar Pigeon, Malay Night-heron, Southern Rufous Paradise-flycatcher and three of the world's four Tanygnathus parrots; Great-billed, Blue-naped and Blue-backed the other one, Black-lored, is endemic to Buru. The best time to visit these islands is April to September.

All five Banggai endemics occur on this island; the fruit-dove, scops-owl, crow, golden bulbul and jungle-flycatcher, and the seven species restricted to Banggai and Sula; Sula Scrubfowl, Sula Cuckoo-dove, Sula Hanging-parrot, Sula Pitta, Slaty Cuckooshrike, Helmeted Myna and Red-and-black Thrush, as well as a possible new species of leaf-warbler and Peleng Tarsier. From Peleng it is possible to charter a boat to get to the well-forested island of Taliabu in the Sula Islands where, apart from the species shared with the Banggai Islands, there are ten endemics: Sula Fruit-dove, Taliabu Masked-owl, Sula Scops-owl, Sula Dwarf-kingfisher, Yellow-and-green Lorikeet, Sula Cicadabird, Taliabu Fantail, Sula Golden Bulbul, Bare-eyed Myna and Sula Jungle-flycatcher, as well as potential new species of locustella and leaf warblers in the high mountains.

The peak time to visit the islands above is mid-November to mid-December. Indonesia - Sumatra The 30 mainland endemic birds include three partridges, two pheasants, a frogmouth, a ground-cuckoo, a trogon, two pittas, two wren-babblers, a mesia, a cochoa and two leafbirds, and there are 12 more endemics on offshore islands.

Other spectacular birds include White-winged Duck, Fire-tufted Barbet, Malay Banded Pitta, Blue Nuthatch and Temminck's Sunbird, and there is a wide variety of mammals too, including Siamang, White-handed Gibbon and a chance of Orang-utan off the beaten birding track.

Iran Iran is a largely hot, dry and barren country but the Zagros Mountains rise to 12, ft m and the highest peaks are permanently snow covered. The many great birds include the endemic Iranian Pleske's Ground-jay which can be seen in the Dasht-e-Kavir Desert in the northeast.

The best time to look for birds is April-May. The 'flower fields' near Chelgerd with their vast swathes of wild Crown Imperials are famous amongst botanists as are the country's colourful Dionysias and irises, amongst a fine flora best viewed during the middle two weeks of April.

Tacumshin is a great wetland for shorebirds, including those from North America, and once there was an incredible record flock of 26 Buff-breasted Sandpipers there, on the 27th September , the same day as two Semipalmated Sandpipers, a White-rumped Sandpiper and an American Golden Plover!

Ballycotton is another famous place to look for shorebirds which have included a Long-toed Stint in and a Red-necked Stint in Many such rarities have landed on the island of Cape Clear, such as a Blue-winged Warbler in and Ruby-crowned Kinglet in Another hotspot for North American vagrants as is an island farther north called Inishbofin Eastern Kingbird On the nearby mainland are the vertical ft m high Cliffs of Moher where Atlantic Puffins, Guillemots and Razorbills raise their young.

These cliffs lie next to The Burren, a huge limestone pavement beloved by botanists in search of rare and beautiful flowers such as Bloody Cranesbill, Burnet Rose and Columbine. The best time to seawatch is from mid-July to October, and the time to look for nearctic shorebirds and passerines is from mid-August to October with the shorebird season usually peaking in mid-September and the very best time for vagrant American passerines being the second week of October.

Ireland - Northern See Northern Ireland , below. The smart Masked Shrike is a regular spring migrant in Israel. Italy - Abruzzo National Park 'Marsican' Brown Bears, a chance of birds such as Rock Partridge and White-backed Woodpecker, and a superb selection of alpine flowers including many orchids.

Jamaica This small tropical island supports a staggering 31 endemic bird species not including Jamaican Oriole which occurs only on Jamaica and the remote island of San Andres , many of which are widespread. They include a quail-dove, two superb streamer-tailed hummingbirds, a tody, two parrots, two vireos, two thrushes, a euphonia, a warbler and a spindalis.

The quail-dove is most likely to be seen, like several other endemics, along Ecclesdown Road in the John Crow Mountains, although the lizard-cuckoo and blackbird are most likely at Hardwar Gap in the Blue Mountains. There are some spectacular butterflies too, not least the rarely reported endemic Giant Swallowtail Papilio homerus which with a wingspan of up to 15 cm is the largest swallowtail butterfly in the Americas.

The best time to look for birds is February to early May, later for butterflies. Java See Indonesia - Java , above. Mammals include Nubian Ibex. Spring bird migration usually lasts from March to May and peaks from mid-March to early April which also happens to usually be the best time for most flowers including the national flower the Black Iris. Actually there are five black Irises, as well as Blue, Purple and White ones, and other spectacular flowers include blue and lilac-pink Lupins.

Kai Islands See Indonesia - Moluccas , above. Kenya The best overall wildlife experience in the world and therefore A Top Ten Destination , thanks to the presence of so many of Africa's and the world's most spectacular mammals, birds and coral reef fish, the birds including vast flocks of flamingos, ostriches, African Fish-eagle, Secretary Bird, Saddle-billed Stork, Kori Bustard and numerous East African specialities such as Vulturine Guineafowl, Crab Plover, Sokoke Scops-owl, Somali Bee-eater, Golden-winged Sunbird, Golden-breasted Starling and Golden Pipit, so many easy-to-see birds it is possible to see over a hundred species in a day at several locations, well over in just two weeks and over in a month, along with over 60 species of mammal, all in some wonderful settings.

Komodo - Indonesia See Indonesia - Komodo , above. Korea - South See South Korea , below. Kuwait This tiny land of sand lies on a migrant flyway where the passage of birds usually peaks from mid-March to early May especially early April and in November and can be good enough at least as far as passerines are concerned during the spring to rival more famous destinations for observing migrating birds such as Eilat in Israel.

Unfortunately it is necessary to obtain permission well in advance to visit some of the best sites, something best organised by a local, and a lot of people shoot birds, particularly during spring and autumn. June to August is not a good time to visit, the summer being uncomfortably hot. The unique Hypocolius in Kuwait in December by Spider. Laos In this impoverished country, the only landlocked one in South East Asia, many birds, especially large ones, and other animals, are hunted and, as a consequence, very shy.

The best area is arguably Kemeri National Park although the forested dunes of Cape Kolka in the Baltic are the best location in spring to see passerine migrants such as Bluethroats and Golden Orioles, with divers and ducks offshore. Peak birding time is around mid-May when it is also possible to see Ural Owl in adjacent and easily accessible Lithuania. Lesotho The tiny, landlocked, mountain Kingdom of Lesotho is a good place to look for the highland Drakensberg avian specialities of southern Africa.

The most accessible site in the region for these birds is Sani Pass which although technically in South Africa is a major route into Lesotho and a good place for Drakensberg Rockjumper, Gurney's Sugarbird and Drakensberg Siskin, as well as Grey-winged Francolin, Southern Bald Ibis, Cape Vulture, Lammergeier, Cape Eagle-owl, Ground Woodpecker, Sentinel Rock-thrush, Buff-streaked Chat, Barratt's Warbler, Bush Blackcap and Mountain Pipit, some of which can also be seen at Liqobong on the Mechachaneng Ridge where there is a Cape Vulture colony and other cliff-nesting birds such as Jackal Buzzard the most numerous raptors at high altitudes, probably due to the abundance of prey in the form of endemic Sloggett's Ice Rats , and at Mafika-Lisiu Pass in the Maluti Mountains, below which lies Bokong NR where there is an ossuary, an area of large slabs of flat rock used by Lammergeiers to drop and break large bones on.

Below Bokong look out for Malachite Sunbirds nectaring on red-hot pokers Kniphofia. Lesvos The Greek island of Lesvos is situated in the Aegean Sea to the east of mainland Greece, although it is actually next to the west coast of Turkey. It is a very popular destination with birders during the northern spring when large numbers of a wide variety of birds migrate through the island, including herons, Pallid Harriers, Eleonora's and Red-footed Falcons, Little Crakes, shorebirds including Collared Pratincoles, Whiskered and White-winged Black Terns, European Rollers, Red-throated Pipits, Collared Flycatchers, warblers and shrikes.

Leti See Indonesia - Lesser Sundas , above. Along the km Atlantic coastline are mangroves, sandbars and lagoons. Recent research suggests Liberian White-winged Greenbul may merely be an aberrant form of Icterine Greenbul. Wet summers usually last from April to November making birding difficult and dust-laden harmattan winds which often blow across the country from the Sahara between December and March don't help much either.

Lithuania is easily accessible from Latvia — there are no border restrictions — and would make a great combination with that country. The peak time to observe autumn migration along the Baltic Flyway is the first week of October. Up to , birds have been known to fly over the cape each day while at Curronian Spit National Park, another migration hot-spot, mainly for raptors and passerines, up to 1. The best places for waterbirds such as Dalmatian Pelicans and Pygmy Cormorants are the two huge lakes, Megali Prespa and Ohrid, in the southwest corner of the country.

Pelister National Park to the northeast, along with the Galicica Plateau and the Vardar Valley which runs across Macedonia are the top places for butterflies in a country where over species have been recorded including Apollo, Clouded Apollo, coppers, and lots of blues and fritillaries. The peak time for most butterflies is usually the second half of June which is also a good time to look for most birds.

Madagascar Nearly endemic birds and 12 shared only with the Comoros, some belonging to four endemic families; three mesites, five ground-rollers, four asities and 11 tetrakas, and some others including 11 couas, 17 vangas, a sandgrouse, two flufftails, an ibis, a jacana, a fish-eagle, a lovebird, three rock-thrushes, two fodies, two weavers and a wagtail, as well as over species of lemur including the beautiful sifakas, the loud Indri and the confiding Ring-tailed Lemur, all in some of the strangest habitats on the planet.

Madagascar Blue Vanga by Dubi Shapiro , one of many unique and stunning birds on the island of Madagascar. Madeira Two endemic breeding seabirds; Desertas Fea's Petrel and the very rare Zino's Petrel, as well as Bulwer's Petrel, Madeiran Band-rumped and White-faced Storm-petrels, and Barolo Shearwater, make Madeira a great place for seabirds and they can be seen very well on Zodiac boat trips during which there is also a chance of a wide range of cetaceans.

There are many Miombo woodland specialists and one endemic; Yellow-throated Apalis, as well as a fine range of mammals, not least African Elephant, Hippopotamus, Sable and Roan. Malaysia - Borneo See Borneo , above. Malaysia - Malay Peninsula A long list of fabulous South-East Asian birds, especially trogons, kingfishers, bee-eaters, barbets, broadbills, hornbills, pittas and leafbirds with a chance of Rail-babbler, primates such as Siamang and White-handed Gibbon, and even Malayan Tapir, in possibly the oldest lowland rainforest on Earth, at Taman Negara.

Maldives A great diversity of whales and dolphins with very large numbers of some dolphins, as well as over a thousand fish species including Whales Sharks and Manta Rays which can be seen while snorkeling, along with Green and Hawksbill Turtles. Mali This large, mainly flat, land-locked country is most famous in wildlife circles for the Niger floodplain which lies in the middle of the country between the historic cities of Djenne and Timbuktu.

The extent of the flood varies considerably from year to year but when it is very wet it is a paradise for birds, being a very important breeding area for African waterbirds and wintering ground for migrant Palearctic waterbirds which have included estimates of half a million Garganeys, , Northern Pintails, , Ruffs and 20, Glossy Ibises.

The richest area in such years is often Lac Debo near Mopti. In the south the dry season normally lasts from November to April and February is the best time to be in the Niger floodplain because the birds are concentrated on the remaining water.

Mallorca The largest Balearic Island has a wide range of habitats ranging from one of the largest freshwater marshes in the Mediterranean to mountains that rise to over m. Amongst over 30 endemic plants are a relic from the ice age, Hypericum balearicum, and orchids like Bug and Loose-flowered.

Spring migration usually peaks in mid-April, autumn passage in mid-October. Manitoba - Canada See Canada - Manitoba , above. Mariana Islands See Micronesia , below. However, most visiting birders are after adding several species that have restricted ranges in the Western Palearctic WP to their WP lists. Two of the best wadis are north of the settlement of Ouadane, a green oasis in the otherwise barren landscape to the east of the town of Atar where it is possible to arrange the required 4WD with driver.

Most of the surviving endemic birds are endangered too, especially the Pink Pigeon, the kestrel and the Echo Parakeet, while the other five endemics are all declining; a cuckooshrike, a bulbul, a rare white-eye, a relatively 'common' white-eye and a fody. Other birds present on the island include Mascarene Swiftlet, Mascarene Martin, the rare Mascarene Paradise-flycatcher which also occurs on Reunion and several introduced species.

From the north coast it is possible to telescope Gunner's Quoin Island although it is better to hire a boat to visit the island and the surrounding waters in order to see Red-tailed and White-tailed Tropicbirds, and Masked Booby. The heavily degraded island of Rodrigues supports two endemic landbirds; a warbler and a fody, both of which are rare in some high vegetated gulleys, as well as Rodrigues Golden Flying Fox. Other landbirds present there include Mascarene Paradise-flycatcher, while seawatching near dusk from the the St.

Etienne rivermouth area may reveal Barau's and Mascarene Petrels, and Tropical Shearwaters, massing before flying inland to their nesting sites high among the volcanic peaks. The best time to visit these islands is October-November. Mauritius Fody by Dubi Shapiro.

Mayotte See See Comoros and Mayotte , above. Baja's not all about whales. The birds include Red-billed Tropicbirds. Image by Dave Barnes. Mexico - El Triunfo The cloud forest in this reserve in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas is one of the few accessible sites in Chiapas and neighbouring Guatemala where Horned Guan occurs, and this is also a good place to see other range-restricted highland specialities such as Highland Guan, White-breasted Hawk, Fulvous Owl, Resplendent Quetzal the subspecies with the longest tail , Blue-throated Motmot, Green-throated Mountain-gem, Emerald-chinned Hummingbird, Black-throated Jay, Blue-crowned Chlorophonia and Hooded Grosbeak.

The best time to visit is March when Horned Guans are usually calling. It is only possible to see this bird at remote El Triunfo in southern Mexico or in adjacent Guatemala. Mexico - Oaxaca There are probably more bird species in Oaxaca than any other Mexican state; nearly , and about a hundred of these are regional endemics.

Other great birds around the city include Grey Silky-flycatcher and Chestnut-sided Shrike-vireo, with a chance of Aztec Thrush. The endemic Giant Wren a real giant! The best time to look for birds is January to April. Blue, blue, electric blue, that's the colour of a Rose-bellied or Rosita's Bunting. The superb image of this one was captured in the Tapanatepec Foothills of Oaxaca, Mexico, by Nigel Voaden , the same place the very colourful Orange-breasted Bunting occurs, both species being endemic to Mexico.

At the coast, on the Gulf of California, rocky islets viewable with telescopes from Mazatlan support breeding Red-billed Tropicbirds and Blue-footed Boobies. Further south along the Pacific coast lies the small holiday resort of San Blas where it is possible to see species in a week, less than a thousand miles south of the U.

Humpback Whales spend the northern winter in Banderas Bay, Puerto Vallarta, where on organised whale-watching trips it is also possible to see Bottlenose and Spotted Dolphins. Not much further south is the small state of Colima which together with parts of neighbouring Jalisco supports about 40 endemics including San Blas Jay, Aztec Thrush, Red Warbler and Orange-breasted Bunting, as well as Grey Silky-flycatcher, Chestnut-sided Shrike-vireo, many warblers including Colima and Golden-browed, and Red-breasted Chat.

The smoking Volcan de Fuego is one of the best sites, although the vast flocks of Yellow-headed Blackbirds winter on the Ciudad Guzman Marshes. At the coast, boat trips can be arranged out of Manzanillo to a big rock called Piedra Blanca where Red-billed Tropicbirds breed. The best time to bird Western Mexico is January-February. Micronesia About fifty endemic birds including Palau 13 and the Northern Marianas 8 with 21 on the islands of Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei and Yap in actual Micronesia, including fruit-doves, ground-doves, kingfishers, monarchs and white-eyes, along with seabirds such as Red-tailed and White-tailed Tropicbirds, Red-footed Booby and Common White Tern, and some of the best places in the world to snorkel or scuba-dive with Manta Rays.

Republic of Moldova A small country near the Danube Delta between Romania and Ukraine with woods, forests, farmland, orchards, vineyards, river valleys and some fine wetlands. It is possible to see about species in a week. Few people visit but one tour company does, Oriole Birding, in late June. Between the mountains lies Lake Skadar, the largest freshwater lake in Europe, westernmost nesting site of Dalmatian Pelicans and home to thousands of Pygmy Cormorants as well as Whiskered Terns.

Birding is best April-May but the later the better for a chance of Olive-tree Warbler. Morotai See Indonesia - Moluccas , above. Mozambique African Pitta, Green-headed Oriole and Miombo woodland specialities, as well as some mammals, mostly reintroduced after a slaughter, and a long coast with Crab Plovers, Manta Rays, Whale Sharks and numerous colourful other fish on some of the most pristine coral reefs in the world.

Down south it is possible to see Spoon-billed Sandpipers on their wintering grounds; most of the remaining population perhaps less than probably winters on the Myanmar coast. The best time to search for pittas is mid-March to mid-April when they are normally at their most vocal but seeing them will involve a organising a mini camping expedition from the coastal town on Myiek.

Back in Yangon there is a roost of half a million or so Asian Wrinkle-lipped Bats at the spectacular Shwedagon Pagoda. The best time for most birds 'up north' is November to March. This unique species occurs only in Namibia and Angola where this image was captured at Renato Grade.

Netherlands Tens of thousands of geese, with a good chance of Lesser White-fronted, as well as swans and Smews in winter, and hundreds of thousands of shorebirds during late summer. New Caledonia Nearly 20 mainland endemic birds include some of the strangest birds in the world not least Kagu, Cloven-feathered Dove and a tool-using crow.

The strange Cloven-feathered Dove occurs only on the island of New Caledonia where this fine image was taken by Lars Petersson. Newfoundland - Canada See Canada - Newfoundland , above. New Zealand Six endemic bird families; five kiwis, three parrots, three wrens, three mohouas, four wattlebirds and Stitchbird, and 54 endemic bird species, also including Blue Duck, Black Stilt, Wrybill, Tui, Takahe and Weka, as well as the breeding endemic, New Zealand Storm-petrel, and the islands are just as famous for Sperm Whales and a superb selection of seabirds such as Wandering, Royal and several other albatrosses, petrels, shearwaters and White-faced Storm-petrel, many of which can be seen at close range on boat trips.

Nicaragua Although the largest country in Central America has long been overshadowed by its southern neighbour Costa Rica as far as birding goes it still has swathes of good forest, especially in the Caribbean lowlands where the Indio Maiz Reserve and Rio Indio Lodge are situated. The rainy season normally runs from May to November when hurricanes are also possible.

Northern Ireland Northern Ireland's largest seabird colony is on Rathlin Island off the north coast where there is a Seabird Centre, accessible by boat from Ballycastle. On the mainland nearby is the famous Giant's Causeway where there are about 40, hexagonal basalt columns up to 1. There is a Bird Observatory on Copeland Island, accessible, with prior permission, by boat from Donaghadee, where rare North American birds recorded include a Red Fox-sparrow in The largest sea lough in the British Isles, Strangford Lough, is of international importance to wildfowl 25, and waders 50, during the winter, including Pale-bellied Brent Geese, the numbers of which usually peak at about 12, in October.

Breeding species include Arctic Tern. Inland is the largest freshwater lake in the British Isles, Lough Neagh, which with Lough Beg and associated wetlands is another important wetland in winter when the enormous rafts of birds include the largest concentrations of diving ducks in Britain and Ireland. Bird numbers may reach up to ,, including six per cent of the world's Whooper Swans and internationally significant numbers of Bewick's Tundra Swans.

Nunavut - Canada See Canada - Nunavut , above. Oaxaca - Mexico See Mexico - Oaxaca , above. Obi See Indonesia - Moluccas , above. Pakistan Pakistan would surely be a popular birding destination without so many mainly political and religious troubles, and what a country to go birding in, especially the north where the Pamirs, Hindu Kush, Himalayas and Karakoram Ranges meet and numerous spectacular mountains rise to m 28, ft at K2, the second highest mountain on Earth, just m ft lower than Everest.

A good place to look for these birds is the scenic Kaghan Valley which runs north from the town of Balakot, north of Abbottabad. In the deserts of the southwest there seven species of sandgrouse; Black-bellied, Chestnut-bellied, Crowned, Lichtenstein's, Painted, Pin-tailed and Spotted. The best time to visit the north is between May and September, early June for the majority of breeding species. It is hot all year round in the centre and south, especially in June and July.

Palau See Micronesia , above. Panama Nearly a thousand bird species including nine endemics, 74 species shared with Costa Rica and 27 species shared with Colombia, a multitude of birds that includes Harpy Eagle, many hummingbirds, Resplendent Quetzal, Sapayoa, Black-crowned Pittasoma, Black-tipped, Blue, Turquoise and Yellow-billed Cotingas, Long-tailed Silky-flycatcher, Golden-browed and Yellow-collared Chlorophonias, and Wrenthtrush, with a rich offshore life too where there are Manta Rays and turtle cleaning stations.

This beauty occurs only in Panama and Costa Rica. Papua New Guinea Nearly birds are endemic to the main island of New Guinea and its offshore islands including 68 that are endemic to West Papua the western half of the island and that are endemic to Papua New Guinea the eastern half although only 33 of those are endemic to the mainland. Offshore there is just as much crazy variety thanks to the fishes and other creatures living on some of the richest coral reefs on the planet.

New Guinea is home to so much more than birds-of-paradise. The widespread Rufous-bellied Kookaburra for example is one of numerous spectacular endemics. Both males and females have massive white bills but males have blue tails and females rufous. This male was captured by Nigel Voaden.

The best time to visit Paraguay is mid-September to the end of October. Peleng See Indonesia - Sulawesi's satellites , above. The best time to look for birds is June-July. Peru - Southern including Manu The richest region for birds on Earth with a tenth of the world's species, about a thousand, including macaws and parrots visiting clay licks, hummingbirds, quetzals, jacamars, toucans, cotingas including Andean Cock-of-the-rock, manakins and multicoloured tanagers, as well as Giant Otters and monkeys, all in some of the most pristine habitats left on Earth.

Marvellous Spatuletail by Ian Merrill, arguably the world's most spectacular hummingbird, found only in a few places in Northern Peru. Philippines Over endemic birds in a country archipelago slightly smaller than the British Isles, including Palawan Peacock-pheasant, Philippine Monkey-eating Eagle, Philippine Trogon, 11 kingfishers, 11 hornbills, two broadbills, three pittas, four rhabdornises a unique genus in the starling family , 13 sunbirds and 15 flowerpeckers,a s well as Philippine Tarsier, and the chance to swim with Dugongs, Manta Rays, Whale Sharks and numerous coral reef fish.

Poland Ancient lowland forest with woodpeckers and bison, and the largest inland wetland left in Europe where White-winged Terns and Aquatic Warblers nest. Polynesia Over 35 endemic birds including the unique Tuamotu Sandpiper, as well as lorikeets, fruit-doves, kingfishers, monarchs and reed-warblers, as well as Bristle-thighed Curlew, lots of seabirds, including Polynesian Storm-petrel, and Common and Little White Terns, in true tropical paradises, from low-lying atolls to high volcanic islands.

Puerto Rico This small island supports an endemic monotypic bird family Puerto Rican Tanager and 15 other endemic birds; a nightjar, two hummingbirds, a lizard-cuckoo, a tody, a woodpecker, a parrot, a vireo, a euphonia, an oriole, a blackbird, two warblers, a spindalis and a bullfinch, as well as two species shared with the Virgin Islands only; Puerto Rican Screech-owl and Puerto Rican Flycatcher.

The parrot is very rare and unlikely to be seen even where most of the wild and released birds are, in the Caribbean National Forest El Yunque in the Sierra de Luquillo, particularly at Rio Abajo. Other Caribbean endemics include two more hummingbirds and Eastern Red-legged Thrush while other spectacular species present include White-tailed Tropicbird, Magnificent Frigatebird and wintering warblers from North America such as Prairie.

It is possible to see all of the endemics except the parrot in a few days hence many birders combine a trip to this island with the Dominican Republic. Other natural wonders include the karst country of the northwest where there are many similar sized and shaped ft 30 m high hillocks or mogotes; the Rio Camuy Caves, also in the northwest, one of the largest cave systems on the planet covering acres ha ; and Mosquito Bay on the island of Vieques which at night all year round glows blue-green thanks to the presence of millions of microscopic phosphorescent dinoflagellates, best experienced while swimming on a cloudy moonless night.

The best time to look for birds is March-April. Quebec - Canada See Canada - Quebec , above. Republic of North Macedonia See Macedonia , above. Reunion See Mauritius, Reunion and Rodrigues , above. Rodrigues See Mauritius, Reunion and Rodrigues , above. Romania Waterbirds galore in the Danube Delta and along the rest of the Black Sea coast, during summer and on migration, including pelicans and Pygmy Cormorants, with Wallcreepers and Brown Bears in the Carpathian Mountains.

Russia - Kamchatka, and the Kuril and Commander Islands Some of the world's most spectacular seabird colonies, with Horned and Tufted Puffins, and Crested, Parakeet and Whiskered Auklets, other spectacular birds such as Laysan Albatross and Steller's Sea-eagle, numerous fur seals and sealions, forming one of the greatest concentrations of marine mammals on Earth, Brown Bears and the chance of Blue, Killer and Sperm Whales. Rwanda Read Gorillas in the Mist , the wonderful book by Dian Fossey who carried out most of her research here, try to get some sleep, meet the rangers in the morning, join a small group of fellow trekkers and head up the switchback trails through the lush, damp, sometimes misty, forest.

One to five hours later you may meet some Mountain Gorillas and the first to emerge from the undergrowth is often the magnificent silverback, and seeing him for the first time and watching him and his family for the allotted hour, just a few paces away, may well turn out to be your best wildlife experience ever. Sometimes even fanatical birders have to admit the 'bird-of-the-day' is a mammal. St Lucia This Caribbean island is just 43 km 27 miles long and 23 km 14 miles wide. Its forested slopes support the richest avifauna in the Lesser Antilles including four endemic bird species; a parrot, an oriole, a warbler and a black finch, with three more possibles; the island forms of Rufous Nightjar, House Wren and Lesser Antillean Pewee.

On boat trips off Soufriere, Fraser's, Spinner and Pantropical Spotted Dolphins are possible and also offshore there are many coral reef fishes, and Green and Hawksbill Turtles. The best time to look for birds is February-April. Samoan Moorhen is probably extinct.

To see the rare white-eye it is necessary to hike high up Mount Silisili from the village of A'opo on the island of Savai'i. All of the other endemics occur here too. The best time to look for the endemics is July to September. Image by Simon Colenutt. Sangihe See Indonesia - Sulawesi's satellites , above. Some taxonomists believe the island forms of Lemon Dove and Chestnut-winged Starling are also endemic, bringing the total for the island to The tricky ones to see are the white-eye and the thrush and it is necessary to travel by boat to the south of the island to look for these.

Other species present on Principe include the dryas race of Blue-breasted Kingfisher and Grey Parrot, both of which are still relatively 'common', as well as a possible new species of scops-owl. Boat trips can be arranged to look for seabirds on offshore islets and volcanic plugs, including White-tailed Tropicbird and Brown Noddy. The best time to visit the islands for birds is July-August.

Other wildlife includes the unique endemic cave salamanders with different species in separate mountain ranges, about 35 species of dragonfly including the endemic Island Bluetail, Copper Demoiselle, and Violet Dropwing, and 25 orchids. The best time for orchids is early April, for dragonflies early June and for birds late April - early May when migrants pass through.

A superb image of flying Greater Flamingoes by Spider. Saskatchewan - Canada See Canada - Saskatchewan , above. Saudi Arabia The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is on a migratory flyway and serves as an important resting and refueling stopover for birds moving between Europe, Asia and Africa.

In the east spring migration occurs between mid-February and mid-May usually peaking in April and autumn migration occurs between mid-August and early November but is less heavy than the spring migration. The only one missing is Yemen Radde's Accentor which is endemic to Yemen.

All 15 can be seen in the Abha area of the Asif mountains, connected by air to both Jeddah and Riyadh. Scotland - Outer Hebrides Corn Crake, Golden and White-tailed Eagles, Hen Harrier, nesting shorebirds and a chance of Otter on some wild islands which are also famous for the many rare British birds that appear there, especially on the island of Barra.

Scotland - Shetland Some of the world's most spectacular seabird cliffs, the best place in Britain for nesting Red-necked Phalaropes, other nesting shorebirds, Great Skuas, Otters and a chance of Killer Whales. The exquisite Red-necked Phalarope by Lars Petersson. June is the best time to go but prepare to meet millions of midges. Seram See Indonesia - Moluccas , above. Serbia This small country about the size of Portugal is mainly flat north of the capital Belgrade where large rivers including the Danube flow slowly across the Pannonian Plain while to the south there are hills and mountains.

In gorges in the west of the country there are about pairs of Eurasian Griffons Tresnjica Gorge NR is the nearest colony to Belgrade and can be visited within a day. However, perhaps the most famous site for birds in Serbia is the town of Kikinda where in some winters over Long-eared Owls roost! During the winter tens of thousands of geese overwinter, twice as many when the Danube area is frozen solid, mostly Greylag and Greater White-fronted Geese half of them at the Labudovo okno Ramsar site at the Danube with the odd Lesser White-fronted and Red-breasted Geese.

Seychelles Twelve endemic birds; a blue-pigeon, a swiftlet, a scops-owl, a kestrel, a parrot Praslin and Curieuse , a paradise-flycatcher mainly La Digue and Denis , a warbler, a bulbul, a white-eye Mahe and Conception , a magpie-robin, a sunbird and a fody, some of which are very rare and the subject of long-standing captive-breeding, release and introduction projects, as well as Common White Terns, some large seabird colonies with frigatebirds, tropicbirds and Sooty Terns, and stunning coral reefs.

Seychelles Blue-pigeon, one of several endemic landbirds on the Seychelles, by Brian Field. Shetland - Scotland See Scotland - Shetland , above. Sichuan - China See China - Sichuan , above. The island also supports the resident endemic whitakeri race of Rock Partridge and a distinctive form of Long-tailed Tit. During the second half of April it is possible to see a wide variety of passage migrant passerines especially on east coast headlands where migrant hot-spots include Capo Murro di Porco where the garrigue-covered cape provides refuge for birds such as Collared Flycatchers.

Common birds include Spotless Starling. The superb Egyptian Plover by Dubi Shapiro. Singapore Singapore is an island city and country, the second most densely populated behind Monaco on the planet and yet it is possible to see some very good birds in this metropolis. Changi International Airport is a massive transit point for people travelling between Southeast Asia, Indonesia and Australasia and any birders with more than a couple of hours to spare may wish to consider visiting Pasir Ris Park and the Botanic Gardens.

The botanic gardens are usually very busy with people but it is still possible to see birds such as Red-legged Crake, Stork-billed Kingfisher and Lineated Barbet, as well as Yellow Bittern, Pink-necked Green-pigeon and Crimson Sunbird. In order to leave the airport during transit passengers will need i to request a landing card on-board and present it to immigration on arrival, and ii some Singaporean dollars to pay for taxis, trains and so on.

Slovenia Slovenia is a small, relatively unspoiled country lying where the Alps meet the Mediterranean with an array of natural wonders including the 21 km 13 miles of passages, galleries and halls in the karst limestone Postojna Cave where in a small pool live pink Olms Proteus anguinus , cave salamanders endemic to the Dalmatian coast. The alpine mountain slopes and steep-sided valleys thick with pine forests also support a rich flora of over species, many of which are restricted to the Julian Alps and include Edelweiss, Illyrian Gladiolus and Transylvanian Orchid.

June is the best time to look for birds, flowers and some of the butterflies recorded in the country such as Common Glider and Spotted Fritillary. In the southern Dinaric Alps region it is possible to visit specially designed photography hides to view and photograph Brown Bears, most likely in May. Socotra This island in the Arabian Sea off the Horn of Africa supports some superb Dragon Tree forests in spectacular scenery where 43 bird species are known to breed, ten of which are endemic; a scops-owl, a buzzard, a warbler, a cisticola, a starling, a sunbird, two sparrows, a grosbeak and a bunting Dixcem Plateau only.

Solomon Islands There are more restricted-range bird species, that is species with ranges of less than 50, square kilometres, in the Solomon Islands than anywhere else on Earth. To stand a chance of seeing these and all the endemics, visitors will need to take many internal flights and be prepared to sail several times in order to visit Guadalcanal where the capital Honiara is situated and there are about ten single-island endemics including a rail and a moustached Kingfisher, the first male of which was controversially 'collected' in , Rennell about eight endemics including a parrot and a shrikebill , Makira 16 , Malaita 8 , Santa Isabel an endemic rail as well as several species shared only with Bougainville , the New Georgia Islands including Kolombangara 11 including the flightless Roviana Rail , and the Santa Cruz Islands at the southeastern end of the long archipelago seven including Nendo Shrikebill.

As well as birds, the Arnavon Islands to the northwest of Santa Isabel support one of the most important rookeries in the west Pacific for Hawksbill Turtle and coral reefs surrounding many smaller islands are rich in marine life. The best time to look for birds is July to September.

Like the rest of the birds and other wildlife, especially those which live in the woods and forests, many are likely to be suffering heavy losses since one environmental group warned, in , that Somalia would be a country without trees if they were cut down at the then rate. The best area for cranes is usually Cheorwon where the vast majority forage in the Civilian Control Zone, an area used for farming only and accessible only with local guides or on local organized tours since it is next to the completely undeveloped Demilitarized Zone on the border with North Korea.

Sri Lanka Over 30 endemic birds and over 30 shared only with Southern India, including a junglefowl, a frogmouth, two malkohas, a trogon, two flameback woodpeckers, a blue magpie, a scimitar-babbler, two thrushes and a leafbird, some fabulous wintering birds hard to see elsewhere such as Indian Pitta, Pied Thrush, Indian Blue Robin and Kashmir Flycatcher, Leopards, lorises, monkeys and a good chance of 'Pygmy' Blue Whale, all based on an island just km miles by km miles.

Subantarctic Islands of New Zealand and Australia Millions of marine birds and mammals including King and endemic Royal Penguins, Wandering and Light-mantled Albatrosses, and elephant and fur seals, as well as endemic ducks, shags and snipes on the Snares, Auckland, Campbell, Antipodes and Bounty Islands. Sula Islands See Indonesia - Sulawesi's satellites , above. Sulawesi's satellites See Indonesia - Sulawesi's satellites , above. Sumatra See Indonesia - Sumatra , above.

Suriname The largest known lek of gorgeous Guianan Cock-of-the-rocks in the world, the easiest place to see Grey-winged Trumpeters, lots of other spectacular birds such as Scarlet Ibis, Crimson and Ruby Topazes, Guianan Red Cotinga, Capuchinbird and Blue-backed Tanager, and monkeys and sloths in a small, sparsely-populated country with a lot of its vast forests remaining.

Conifers dominate the north but to the south and east there are mixed forests with beech, birch and oak. Most people in search of owls and bears visit Finland where Wolverine and Red-flanked Bluetail are also possible but if it's Cranes visitors are after then Sweden is the place to go. During the first half of April 20, or so gather at Lake Hornborga Hornborgasjon a few hours from Stockholm and in early September the same number come together at Bergslagen, along with up to 20, Taiga Bean Geese.

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