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It presents a picturesque natural scenery of a vast expanse of land and sky to the north of the border where mountain peaks rise one above the other in the distance This movement is fast, forceful, vehement and varied. The beacon fire was associated with war in ancient times. This movement depicts the countless sons of China who stepped into the battlefield to replace others who had fallen in fierce fighting to defend their motherland. The music is extended to depict a war scene with countless troops and horses and clanking of swords and spears.

The various compositional techniques involved in this movement include the erhu 's saltarello bowing, fast changing scales of different modes and the whole-tone scale, gradually condensed Matui horse gallop , traditional Peking Opera percussion patterns, discordant broken diminished seventh chord.

When the erhu reaches the highest note of the arpeggiated diminished seventh chord, the line descends rapidly and the music calms down. In the following coda, a soft passage played by the erhu and orchestra presents a picture of ravages of war under the moon with corpses strewn over the battlefield inside and outside the Wall. The erhu then plays ritenuto and subito forte to extol the exemplary bravery of the sons of China.

It is made up of adagio, largo, cadenza and climactic sections. The subdued and grievous notes, punctuated by solemn bell tolls, bring out the subtle, pious, and plaintive theme on the erhu. This gradually develops into agitated and passion-charged sections showing high emotional upsurges and a generosity in both attitude and mind.

Orchestration is skillfully employed to provide accompaniment, at times imitating the resonance of ancient bells, and at other times the sounds of a male chorus. These sounds, produced in responsorial sequences, have greatly enhanced the tragic gravity of the occasion being depicted. They also help to express the respect and veneration of the Chinese people for those who, though nameless, gave their lives during the past millennia in defence of the country.

The cadenza passage for the erhu and the magnificent, passionate and broad climax for the orchestra at the end serve well to integrate and sublimate the various emotions involved, and to perpetuate the past for the edification of those who are to come. It is made up of an andante with florid melody and robust rhythm, a determined duoban leading to an allegretto, a broad andante, a cantabile adagio and a brilliant coda.

On the basis of a robust and determined rhythm, the erhu appears in variation to rediscover the first theme, and the music grows in brightness, intense and full of imaginative colours. Following this is a dance-like melody which opens up a new tonal vista for the listener. The crisp, metallic notes of the duoban develop into the allegretto with an undaunted, indomitable dynamism.

The grandeur and majesty of the coda is a variation and expansion of the theme in the introduction, and reiterates the Chinese people's firm belief that a bright and glorious future awaits. An ancient city with a history of over 1, years, it is also called the City of Sunlight, because it has 3, hours of sunshine each year. The sky is always blue and the gilt roofs of the monasteries sparkle in the clear light of the sun.

These ancient monasteries house many rare objects of historical and artistic value. Together with these magnificent and beautiful thousand-year-old edifices, Lhasa, the holy city on the 'Ridge of the World', attracts the world with its enigmatic charm.

The monastery was built like a fortified castle and stands majestically on the cliff of the mountains. The music begins with low notes imitating the broad, sonorous vanguard horns of the lamas, slowly pushing open the heavy doors of the Potala Palace. Meanwhile, the strains of the strings conjure up the scene of the Main Hall where incense smoke spiral up and waft in the air, and treasures gleam and glow in the light…. Running towards the south of Lhasa, the Yalu Zangbo is the most important river in Tibet.

It not only gave life to the people of Tibet, but also was the source of Tibetan Culture. The music sings of a wide, rapidly flowing river and sighs how the years swiftly go by. In the Tibetan language, 'duchuijiewa' means to send a corpse to the burial ground. The priest officiating at this ceremony first offers sacrifices to the gods.

The vultures, seeing the fire and the smoke, will then descend and gather round. The priest cuts the corpse into pieces, and then sounds his conch or shouts loud long to the heavens. The vultures will then flock around and consume the cut-up remains until there is nothing left. In the first section of this movement the guzheng is played in dialogue with the strings, as a prelude to this rather gruesome scene.

The sound of the corpse being dismembered is at once terrifying and enticing. The tradition of heavenly burial is in line with a Tibetan Buddhism concept, that 'the Bodhisatva's greatness is in his readiness to give up his own body to nurture creatures of the world'.

This also suggests one's path to enlightenment. It is an exhortation to the world that all, including one's own body, may be given for others. As the orchestra enters an allegro passage, the music is mixed with loud shouts, wailing cries, chanting of the prayers, and the sound of vultures fighting for food.

After the tumult comes the rising notes of the strings, against which the xylophone tinkles in depiction of the tears on the faces of the mourners. It falls on the 29th of the 12th month of the Tibetan calendar, when the lamas of Potala Palace will put on disguise as wicked ghosts.

They dance and are ceremonially chased around. The dance is meant to exorcise the country and rid it of evil spirits in anticipation of the New Year. In the evening, families gather together to drink 'tuba' and burn incense, and offer prayers for peace and good fortune. The composer here employs modern complex rhythms to depict a scene that is at once full of religious vigour and mysteriousness.

The themes of the first three movements faintly appear and then fade away, - a reminder of their traditional concepts. The music culminates to a boisterous and prayerful close. People who live on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateaux are a rustic lot.

Living close to the earth, their hearts are innocent, pure, and filled with love. Their unique lifestyle is seen in the beautiful songs they sing, which tell of their lingering thoughts for family and their lovers. Their musical idiom is like a clear, sparkling brook, with a limpid sweetness that cannot be found elsewhere.

This is based on a Yi folk tune and its variations, and is a depiction of the scenic, sprawling forests on the plateaux. The melody develops in a lyrical strain, energized by the joyous, leaping rhythm throughout.

A young man comes to the door of a girl's home at night and sings of his love for her, accompanying himself on a single-string huqin. How can her heart not be touched? So she invites him in. They tell each other of their love, then begin to dance, ecstatically immersed in a world of their own. This way of courtship is unique to the young people of the Yi tribe, and is imbued with romantic lyricism.

The lusheng is a wind instrument and young men of the Miao ethnic group play it to show their love for the maidens of their dreams. This simple way of courtship that dates back long ago displays the rustic charm of the Miao people. The Miaos have a history - the Chinese myth of Creation by Pangu originates from their mythology. One cannot help wondering how a tribe with such a long history can retain such rustic innocence? Songs of yearning would lead us to a beautiful future; people that love to sing are always optimistic about tomorrow.

This is a joyous Yi tune. Its beautiful melody comes from the Buyi , one of the Miao tribes. On this occasion, the sonorous singing of the various tribes, called 'flying songs' by the Miao people, comes from all directions to form an ocean of surging sounds and joy. History records that dance music of the Hu Nationality was at its most popular in the Sui Dynasty.

The Hu dance was an exotic combination of the dance forms of north India and Persia, but the music had been long lost. The composer employed the characteristics of Persian and oriental music to make this creditable imitation of the lost melodies. The people of Xinjiang celebrate feast days with horse racing. The first half of the music shows how everyone. Young and old, man and woman, rushes to the racecourse on horseback.

There is a lot of happiness and joy among them. The second half depicts the excitement at the racecourse and the piece is brought to a joyful climax amidst the baying of horses. Cai Wenji herself was a learned woman with exceptional music acumen. The tablature was based on a wood-block print of the Song Dynasty. The poignant music was in the form of a vocal suite. It describes the life of the writer, Cai Wenji herself. The last years of the Eastern Han Dynasty was fraught with wars and political unrest.

Cai was captured by the Xiongnu Huns and later, married a Xiongnu prince, with whom she spent twelve years. When the war between the Han and the Xiongnu was over, the prime minister of Han, Cao Cao, paid a large ransom for her release, but she had already given birth to a son and a daughter. The music therefore is an emotional outpouring of her demise — a victim of war, her pining for her homeland in China, and her longing for her husband and children when she had to go.

The music is a fine blend of Han and Hun music, written with sensitivity, lyricism and a rich timbre. The present arrangement by Ng Tai-kong is based on the first, third, twelfth and eighteenth sections. In the prelude, Ng describes the ravages of war: people dying, fugitives fleeing, the chaos, the soldiers …. From this background, the solo voice of the female protagonist emerges.

She describes her devastations with deep feelings. The orchestra replaces the self-accompanied singing in the original work, and gives an almost cinematic rendering of scenes. Chance encounters are the work of Fate. With fate on one's side, one's path can cross with another who lives thousands of miles away. However, meetings between people can bring good or bad consequences. Although fate is uncontrollable, the composer tries to portray the positive side of destiny. There are four short movements in this work.

From the undefined Realm of the Unknown, the unchosen chance has begun. Was the plot planned or picked? By one or by none? It signs and expresses in sight and sound. Through the symbols one learns to know. He who cares becomes aware of what comes to pass, and passes to go. Chapter 1. Arrival of a corrupt official, upheaval of injustice. Chapter 2.

The pious daughter-in-law, sentenced to death at court. The multiple symphonic sounds of the orchestra expresses the stylistic acting poses of Beijing opera: the suona sounds out the presiding judge's solemn yelling order, the sound of dongxiao describes the helpless woman's mentality and Leiqin sounds out her grievances.

Chapter 3. The cry of injustice, heaven and earth are shocked. The melodic materials of this passage are based on the motif — the linguistic tune of the words in Cantonese "Cry of Injustice". The calculated and well-controlled 'improvisation' technique brings forth the unexpected lively overtone.

Chapter 4. The sad departure and remembrance of the good old days. The orchestra turns into a small ensemble with solo instruments, it serenely depicts the heartfelt thinking of despair and helplessness in life on the eve of execution. Under the escort of the mounted police the execution was conducted amidst a round of scattered sound of guzheng and yangqin. The following tune played by the dongxiao brings forth the looming restless aggrieved soul of the victim, and brings the whole piece to a close.

This composition commissioned in , was a milestone in the progress of the Hong Kong Chinese Orchestra when it attempted to become modernized and symphonic over the past ten years. Its premiere was conducted by the composer and it subsequently gave rise to a craze for innovative Chinese musical composition in the local music world.

The titles of the five chapters are also similar to Guan's work. It is chosen to be one of the greatest Chinese Classical Composition of the 20th century in Beijing. This work is an experimental piece which stretches the combination of Chinese tonalities, modalities, harmony, timbres and textures.

It is in five sections:. The excavation of the tomb of the First Emperor of Qin and the terra cotta warriors roused the world to attention. However, the people were unable to bear his tyrannical rule and the Qin dynasty lasted only 13 years. Despite its title, this is not a piece literally about the terra cotta warriors. It is meant to depict Qin soldiers who suffered immensely from the fact that they were on combat assignments year after year.

They were always away from their homeland, and they missed parents, wives and children who longed for their return. Hence the "Fantasia" form. The work is in three movements:. The music begins quietly to describe the army in progress at dawn. Military horns are vaguely heard. The sound is heard from afar but is getting nearer and nearer, bringing out the theme of an ancient army advancing.

The second theme in this movement is an expression of the soldiers' distress. The movement ends with a fanfare on both the wind instruments and the drums which signify the appearance of the Emperor and his entourage. Then the gongs and cymbals are sounded to stop the advance and to indicate that tents are to be pitched.

In the second movement, the music begins with depiction of the quiet of the night and the sound of wood blocks, which represents guards doing their rounds. In this quiet the weeping songs of soldiers are heard. It is the sound of men missing their homeland and very soon other soldiers are affected and induced to song. This brings up a chorus which gradually leads the men to a dream. The wood blocks are also meant to represent wives pounding garments when they are doing the laundry for their husbands.

Here a haunting melody is heard on the zheng but, as the soldiers dream about being together with their families, the sound of a gong rudely breaks their dreams. This features a reappearance of the theme of the first movement.

The mood and the configuration of instruments, however, are all changed. The army is still in progress and the Emperor's procession is as before. But a cold wind has risen and the sky becomes dark and cloudy. Snow begins to fall. At this time the music becomes somber and the military theme now appears in the tragically heroic horns.

The whole work ends in heightened emotions. It was later adapted for the qin by the Tang Dynasty author and linguist Yan Shigu. Today's performance is Peng Xiuwen's adaptation of the guqin rendition performed by Wu Jinglue and notated by Xu Jian. To suit the bianzhong and the orchestra, major changes have been made, including shortening the piece. The plum blossom's hardiness and fragrant white flowers are attributes often used to portray moral excellence and exalted ideals in humankind.

Such a comparison can also be found in the five sections of the abridged bianzhong arrangement, which comprises an Introduction, Wisps of Subtle Fragrance, Dominating the Snow Flakes, Flourishing in Bitter Cold, and a Conclusion.

This is the second movement of the Four Seasons suite. It was the last to be completed in , though the composition of the suite began in The theme revolves around the city of Hong Kong, and the beautiful night scenery which left an impression on the composer. The styles of Guangdong Cantonese and Chaozhou music were used in the music to depict this city in the south. What I want to show here is not the glitzy, mercenary side of Hong Kong, but the city's beautiful scenery and the robust spirit of the people living in it.

When I was composing this piece, Hong Kong was facing a downturn in the pandemic. Things that we thought are the norm quickly became extremely precious in an instance. It was under the pandemic that I've learned to cherish the things more that are around me. It is a gift that a live concert could be held now, and I am very grateful for that. I hope that the music will bring a modicum of hope and courage for the audience to face the future and overcome the pandemic in this difficult era!

It also makes use of dynamic and static co-ordination and transformation within the rhythmic figures in 'Yin' and 'Yang' contrasting the void with substance, to express a sort of lilting beauty, albeit with equal emphasis on gentleness.

The work also reflects the unflagging and indomitable 'Jing'; 'Qi'; 'Shen' as well as the enterprising spirit which is much cherished by Chinese. As a Western composer, I am naturally influenced by Western music and culture. While composing The Hallow-e'en Dances, however, I tried to combine my Western style with Chinese instruments and sounds.

The result is a mix of my story, which is the music itself, and the sounds and the possibilities of the Chinese instruments of the Chinese orchestra. In other words, should I write pentatonic music or should I write in chromatic scales, which is more European. It took me a while to make my decision, but now I am happy to say that it has become a mixture of 3 styles: European chromatic style, universal contemporary style and pentatonic style.

Halloween is a very special holiday, enjoyed throughout the world. It was already being celebrated long before Christianity, as the night when the veil between worlds is at its thinnest and the souls of the dead reach back to touch the world of the living. It is a night when the spirits dance and magic and fantasy prevail. This is a great inspiration for me as a composer; I too can break through that veil and let my imagination run wild.

Everything about Halloween inspired me: black cats, skeletons, jack-o'-lanterns, pumpkins, witches, bats, trick-or-treating — a wealth of choice. I took two Halloween highlights and translated them into music.

The Trick-or-Treat Dance tells a very amusing story. In my mind's eye, I see two children on their way to a Halloween party. It is night time, and they pass all sorts of creepy and perilous places. Everywhere they look, they see pumpkins and jack-o'-lanterns. As they pass the old church, the gears of the church clock start to whir. They decide to stop and play for a while in the graveyard.

There they meet mysterious creatures, little skeletons, for instance. They have a wonderful time and truly enjoy themselves. This story is a cross-over, fantasy seeps through and mixes with reality. It inspired me to write an interesting movement. The Dance of the Blind Bats depicts the heroic flight of a cloud of bats. Their elastic and unpredictable movements as they flit through the nighttime air are quite similar to the movements of ballet dancers on a ballet floor.

If we encounter them in real life, we are afraid of them. They look frightening, they live by night, they fly extremely fast and they make unusual noises. When they are flying in a group, their calls are even more unusual, almost like music, they have a rhythm: dakdakdak. And when they sing, they make high-pitched noises: bibibibibibi. I tried to capture these sounds using Chinese instruments….

This is one of the popular theme song of television drama series in Hong Kong and Southeast Asia in the s and s. You said you liked this movement - every time you heard it, your eyes would overflow like a fountain, a river of tears. It was as if you knew, or you felt what was coming; it was as if deep in you, it was already your… The phrases in my music are flowing with your endless thoughts; my life is encircled by wisps of your humming song. Sitting here, there used to be you, there used to be me, but now you're gone, to heaven so faraway… What is left, is only music that would say what we will; even before the music rises, my heart is raining with tears.

The world is constantly changing. Rain or shine, high or low, just face all challenges and adversities with an open mind and a modest heart. Stay on the path you have chosen and keep going. This is not a piece about the terra cotta warriors, despite its title. The piece begins with a long note played by the traditional sheng. The sheng player stands by the organ, and these two instruments of shared origin together narrate the past, present, and future of 'the reeds'. The long note of the sheng then develops into chords, while the arpeggio of the organ also develops into vertical harmony, playing the fundamental pitches G-B-C to support the sheng.

Later, the organ plays in a bright and brilliant color, evoking the rhythmic cluster patterns of the sheng. The sheng player returns to the center front of the stage, replacing the traditional sheng with a reed soprano sheng , playing together with the soprano, alto, and bass shengs in the orchestra and with the organ situated at the bottom of the stage.

This forms a three-dimensional soundscape of reed instruments. The absolute music compositional style will excite the pulse of the audience. The challenging performing techniques and the ecstatic rhythms turn each note into morphine, causing heartbeats to race. Through the instrumental combinations in this piece, the ancient instrument family of the reeds transcends the division between Eastern and Western cultures.

Particularly stunning is the use of the Jew's harp, a distant relative ancestor. The Jew's harpist improvises by switching among one-, two-, and four-reed Jew's harps. A simple Seediq melody lightly wanders around the voices of the reed soprano sheng , the organ, and the Chinese orchestra. Such simplicity and purity, perhaps, is the final destination of 'the reeds', having crossed between East and West, past and present.

Song of Abandon is about freeing oneself from constraints. It tells an encouraging story of overcoming the past to find something new — maybe a personal change, a collective decision, a new feeling, or an unheard musical idea. It is about the very moment, when you know that you must take the next step forward, but you realize what you will lose. Some changes come with unavoidable pain.

Song of Abandon is also about sharing this pain, exchanging thoughts on its causes and why it is necessary to leave something beloved behind. What makes the pain bitter-sweet is the belief, that the departure is good for something: for a new discovery, for a more peaceful life — for whatever someone cares about. One of the many possible stories of abandon is that of Mohammad Reza Mortazavi's tombak. The tombak used to be a traditional instrument bound to strict conventions. Mohammad's way of playing the tombak is not about serving a tradition, but about imagining, inventing and playing music that is far beyond what the instrument used to sound like.

Song of Abandon is sung by the skin of the tombak drum. Its vibrations make the air oscillate, and with it, one instrument after another begins to resonate. Every sound of the large orchestra, from atmospheric heights to massive basses, origins from the small movement of the drum's skin.

Not only the arrangement functions as the amplification to solo's material, it builds the mood of the work and attempts to create a dialogue in this cross-cultural soundscape. Spirited Lion Dance Drums is a piece commissioned by the Hong Kong Chinese Orchestra which brings together orchestral music, lion dance drum music and the actual lion dance. It is a tone poem illustrating Hong Kong as a modern metropolis. The music is in three parts: the first describes a vibrant Hong Kong with the Victoria Harbour; the second features lion dance drum music in tandem with a live dance of a lion duo; the third repeats the theme of Hong Kong in an economic boom and the Victoria Harbour; and the coda is a rousing scene that brings together the Orchestra, the live drum music, and the lions performing the dance.

With images of prosperity, the container port, the bright neon lights of the Victoria Harbour, the piece comes to a climactic close. Facts: The Chang'e-4 moon lander, the second phase of China's Lunar Exploration Programme, made a successful moon landing in January It marked the first successful mission in human history to land on the far side of the moon. Fantasy: This was followed by probing of the moon surface by the Yutu-2 lunar rover.

Results yielded revealed that there is a vast space beneath the surface. So, in the subsequent third and fourth phases of the moon programme, more thermal probes were conducted in different parts of the moon. Some physical movements under the surface layer were detected, which further confirmed that there is civilization in the subterraneous part the moon. The aerospace agency has decided that China's first manned lunar landing project will use music to make the first encounter of the Fifth Kind with non-earthlings.

It is supposed to be a gesture of goodwill and a demonstration of the arts and culture of the earthlings. As for the human candidates for the first moon landing, there will be members of the Hong Kong Chinese Orchestra. The present work is created in anticipation of this adventure, as we share a culture hot pot of music East and West on the moon theme. Next Station Moon is a work that brings together humankind's heartfelt yearning and wishful imaginings of the moon in the music of China and the West.

The original version of this piece was written for Chinese orchestra and piano quartet. The arrangement you hear tonight is for Chinese orchestra and four instruments erhu, gaohu, yangqin, sheng. Let music roam free in a dream — in the style of the famous rhetoric adage on life by Zhuang Zhou, the great philosopher of China who lived in the 4th Century BCE.

The dragon is a totem of the Chinese race, and the first year of the 21st century happens to be the Year of the Dragon on the Chinese horoscope. This happens, it is said, not once in a thousand years but once in three thousand years, and I am one of the lucky ones to witness this. A new millennium brings new hopes and expectations.

As a composer, I think I would rather translate my hopes and expectations into music. In The Age of the Dragon, I have put two soloists in the lead: one Chinese percussion and the other, western, in an attempt to demonstrate the soul and the spirit of the Chinese people.

The piece is in four movements. The first is The Sun - a symbol of light and heat and of faith and power. The second is The Moon - the watery moonlight is a reflection of the deepest feelings. The third is The Stars - twinkling and fascinating, they symbolize wit and hope and have brought wisdom to numerous sages.

The fourth is The Earth - our mother and the home of all the people in the world. It is believed the Earth will get smaller and smaller in the new millennium while people's hearts will grow closer and closer to one another. I would count this as my only wish on the eve of the new age. The original composition was an erhu concerto.

He was an envoy on a goodwill mission to the Huns in the North of China. But he was held hostage by the Hun prince who tried to force him to surrender by intimidation and by promise of wealth. But Su Wu was a man of integrity and, rather than yielding, he chastised the Hun prince for going back on the peace pact with Han. As a result, he was banished to Beihai to herd sheep. He spent nineteen lonely years there, but still refused to give up his status as a Han envoy.

It was only when the emperor of Han sent another envoy to take him back to Han land that he was able to return, whereupon he was bestowed with honour and glory for his integrity. The music portrays the patriotic figure of Su Wu from several angles. It threads through the music as it develops, and forms a relatively free structure. The work is in three sections: 1. Thinking of Han and Missing Home ; and 3. Returning Home with Glory. The protagonist's anxiety is introduced before the erhu solo rises in a cadenza passage from the cacophony of chaos.

It portrays Su Wu's indomitable spirit, unwavering faith and his anger and sadness while standing in a land of wind and snow. In the second movement, Thinking of Han and Missing Home , the tutti in the prelude describes the snow-covered, desolate and vast land with no single soul in sight. Then the solo zhonghu comes in with the heavy, plodding theme melody, expressing Su Wu's sad longing for his family and the unfulfilled wish of returning home after living beyond the Great Wall for so long.

A more fluid middle section depicts Su Wu looking homeward in the far off distance, recalling the happy moments with his family. The mood returns to the former sad and lonely state, while the music ends on the seventh chord of the soprano sheng to suggest a ray of hope in the long, dark night.

The final movement, Returning Home with Glory , opens with a grand fanfare, as Su Wu returns to Han land amidst the welcoming sounds of horns and gongs. Below the apparent joy, there are lamentations of the bygones. The ensuing cadenza of the zhonghu solo recalls the nineteen years of hardships Su Wu has suffered in Beihai.

In the coda the theme of Su Wu Herding Sheep appears on the xindi, then expands into a magnificent eulogy before it comes to a rousing, jubilant close. It appears in Act III, Tableau 1, and according to the description on the original score, the scene is like this: "A bee appears on the sea far off, then flies to the Swan-Bird and dances round it.

With the extremely fast semi quavers and the bravura chromatic techniques, the huqin sextet would really dazzle the audience in this concert. This is an ancient piece that tells the legend of the two celestial lovers, the Cowherd and the Weaver Girl, who are forced to stay on either banks of the Milky Way by the Queen Mother of Heaven.

Their feelings of anger and pain are depicted in the music. The music depicts the lively scene of birds singing in the mountains. On the bases of a traditional melody and traditional performing techniques, the composer has developed a lyrical piece with structural integrity. In playing, cyclic fingering of the left hand on the same note and an extensive use of fast-paced harmonics are employed. The result is a delightfully refreshing appeal. Adapted from the outstanding erhu piece composed by Hua Yanjun A Bing.

At the beginning, A Bing named the song The Tune of the Heart , then Yang Yinliu, a famous musicologist, suggested that the piece be named after the ancient springs at the bottom of Huiquan Mountain in Wuxi, and the work has since been known as Reflections of the Moon on the Waters. The work has a beautiful melody that is full of depth and expresses A Bing's grief as well as his hope for a better life.

The Beginning of Spring, which takes place in early February, is the first solar term. It is a time when the last remnants of winter subside and nature wakes up to the warm glow of the sun. The theme of light and rebirth is also conveyed through the art installation and the artistic treatment in the MV. This episode features the musical instrument suona which represents the element of Metal in wuxing.

Appearing in the Appetiser is the family of the ruan instruments. Discover the characteristics of the trio plays A Dancer's Outpourings excerpt. The ruan's versatility is further shown in the Starter as the pace and mood change in Slowly Rowing on Jasmine Waves excerpt. The Main Course presents Chen playing another plucked-string instrument, the liuqin, with orchestral accompaniment for The Sky with the Stars excerpt.

Not to be missed is Dessert for a behind-the-scene look at the making of the MV. Zhao has prepared four attractive courses along the Wuxing concept of Earth. First, let's meet Zhao the all-round musician in the Appetiser. Watch him breeze through demanding pieces using six very different instruments. To echo with Earth, the next two courses are about human's affinity with the land.

The Starter is a Henan Bantouqu , a form of music developed in the Henan region, with Zhao playing the sanxian. Listen to the love for the land as expressed by the orchestra as well as in Zhao's powerful sanxian solo and vocal performance.

Finally, enjoy the making of the MV as Dessert for a delightful end to the musical feast. It's a time for nourishment and preparation for harvest. See how the concept of the Yin and Yang comes to life using art tech. Experience the dynamics of the interaction of robotics and traditional Chinese music instruments. The Beginning of Winter — one of the 24 Solar Terms in the Chinese lunar calendar — marks a time in which lives cocoon to conserve. It is an inward state centred on the act of conservation.

Beneath this quietude are latent life forces readying for spring to arrive. The centrepiece is an art installation tailor-made for this MV to express the collection and conservation of foods for winter. The art tech acts in sync with the Chinese music performance, with its ring of robotic arms feeding soybeans to the wok-like containers. Furthermore, hanging above are artistically carved calligraphic displays resembling ancient musical scores for the MV's melody as played by the guqin. The Hong Kong Chinese Orchestra launched a series of music videos on the theme of Chinese festivals in the near future.

With the Dragon Boat Festival coming up, the community cannot hold dragon boat races this year as we need to observe social distancing advice and avoid large crowd gatherings. Dragon boat racing is a time-honoured custom in China, and is believed to have the efficacy of warding off epidemics and evils.

We have commissioned a new work titled Dragon Boat by local composer, Ng King-pan, with performance by the Orchestra's musicians. A music video of the same title has also been created by a local production crew led by young director Cheung Kit Bong. We hope the near-virtual sights and sounds of dragon boat races would bring you a happy, safe and healthy holiday! Following the release of the first of the Hong Kong Chinese Orchestra's series of music videos on the theme of Chinese festivals, Dragon Boat , which went viral online, here is the second in the series, Moon Chaser.

An amazing visual display of the versatility of Chinese plucked-string instruments through the macro lens. HKCO's Chinese music MV, Yuqing, Bianqing and Eco-huqin Sextet "Winter Days", marks a rare effort to deploy macro lens and high-definition recording to present the eco-huqin an instrumental series created by the HKCO and the yuqing a jade stone chime used in ancient rituals in China in a modern work. The remarkable quality of the audiovisual production — in terms of recording, sound mixing and camera work — makes this a gem in Chinese music.

More than a thousand audio tracks were used for multi-angle recording and shooting, thus recreating with amazing precision the texture unique to the eco-huqin and its comparatively more brilliant and robust timbres right before the eyes of the viewers. Winter Days is a string of Chinese cultural DNAs found in well-known works and quotes about "Winter solstice", "chilliness" and "home".

It opens with the solitude and rising chill that comes with the north wind, followed by the warmth of sharing glutinous rice dumplings with the family later by a fire. The stark contrast of the chilliness and the warmth makes up a musical stream of consciousness. This Chinese music MV marks a rare effort to deploy macro lens and high-definition recording to present the eco-huqin an instrumental series created by the HKCO and the yuqing a jade stone chime used in ancient rituals in China in a modern work.

The macro lens was used in the making of the MV to zoom in on the secrets of the production of the perfect audio: the friction between the strings, the bow hairs and the rosin, as well as the vibration of the PVC membrane. Hidden in the video is also the gongche notation, a format widely used since the Tang Dynasty up to recent times in Chinese traditional theatre.

Displayed on the screen is the main melody of the work notated using the gongche format as in contemporary Cantonese Opera, a meaningful suggestion of the inherent relationship between the modern and the traditional. It is the sound of stone among the bayin Eight Sounds. Like the bianqing and the bianzhong, yuqing is an instrument for rituals widely used in court music before the Qin Dynasty. Thousand shades of purple and red announce the arrival of Spring to the world". The score of Dragon Phoenix is inspired by the phonemics of the Cantonese dialect in the new year greetings recited, and hidden in it are many famous songs on the Chinese New Year theme.

The result is an audio-visual montage of auspicious new year wishes, just like the red couplets one finds everywhere during this festive season. Note 1: The bianzhong is a set of bronze chimes used as a ritual vessel, rarely captured by the camera. A percussion instrument used only for the worship of heaven by the emperor in ancient China, the bianzhong as seen in the video is a set of 26 pieces of 52 tones, with a weight of about 1. Note 2: The jiangu big drum in the video is from Jiangzhou of Shanxi.

Note 3: All huqins used in the video are eco-huqins researched and developed by the Hong Kong Chinese Orchestra. Richard Tsang — conductor, composer and educationist — has dedicated himself to the development of contemporary music in Hong Kong for more than 30 years. What kind of challenge to one's imagination would it be to create a 'prequel' for it, then? Would the life of celestials be as happy and carefree as the youngsters think? And how many trials do they need to undergo, in terms of money, family, moral conscience etc.

Embedded in this contemporary interpretation of an age-old tale is the message to love the earth so that humankind can live in harmony with Nature. An impassioned journey through time under the baton of Yan Huichang, Artistic Director and Principal Conductor for Life, the Hong Kong Chinese Orchestra presents classic compositions that light up the stage in a melodic unfolding and a musical feast. Song of the General opens the performance with lively scenes that embody the vibrancy of traditional Chinese opera.

Moonlight on the Spring River evokes glorious moments and poetic scenery that unlock the audience's senses, leading them into a realm of sprightly images in The Insect World , the modern classic by Doming Lam, performed with recitation by the three Lung siblings, grandchildren of Lam. Ambush from All Sides brings the concert to an intensely evocative close.

The programme of beautiful tunes and familiar folk music spans Eastern and Western musical styles from different eras, as it spotlights the HKCO as a pioneer in both innovating and passing on the artistic legacy of Chinese music. Through public invitations for new compositions, their performance and discussion, the project has helped to discover and nurture talent in music composition in Hong Kong.

Now into its 21st edition, it has become a highly anticipated platform for showcasing new works and an opportunity for exchange. This year's 'Music from the Heart' concert enters another level of mass outreach with live streaming via 5G broadcasting.

New original compositions by six local composers — Matthew Lam, Wong Ching-yin, Tam Yat-sing, Austin Leung, Wu Kwan-yu and Leung Hong-yu, selected through the open call, will demonstrate the energetic, innovative charm of youth. Hong Kong Drum Festival. It begins with a dramatic clamour - the shrill calls of bugles, the tight roll of drums, and quickening gongs and cymbals - that takes us back to the drilling ground of 1, years ago.

The whistling west wind adds to the tension. Prince Qin, Li Shimin, is inspecting his army and getting them ready for battle. Each of the processes is presented with the varying drumbeats: formation, roll call, drill, and setting off. The awe-inspiring scene of an army led by Li Shimin is dramatized scene after scene in the musical narrative. It was written for a percussion concert in City Hall as part of the Hand-over celebration.

The four Chinese words in the title can be translated as 'Primal Fragrance or Fragrant Original of Squares and Circles', its symbolism and implications are manifold. For example, the instruments are primarily round and rectangular in shape. On a more philosophical level, the interpretation may be that perhaps there is beautiful fragrance within the essence of different ideologies of working together. In this work, visual and aural symbolism and sonic analogies are numerous.

The most obvious is that there is a time in the piece when melody excerpts of the Chinese and British anthems appear together as a duet under the same harmonic scheme. Also, elements of Hong Kong's cosmopolitan culture can be reflected by the use of Mahjong, Western and Eastern instruments and timbres, as well as various types of musical styles including Jazz, Chinese and African.

Pangut , or "setting up a play arena", is a type of farmers' music as well as a form of mass entertainment in which the performers share the fun with the audience. The Pangut performers spin a long ribbon on their hat called sangmo while playing instruments with both hands and making dance movements with their legs and body.

Various patterns can be formed as in military formations. The person who plays the kkwaenggwari is called sangsoi , and has the role of a conductor for the performance and dance. He spins a decoration on top of the hat called bupo , which is made of bird feathers.

Players of the jing , janggu , and buk spin a decoration called chori , which is made of paper. The sogo hand drum player also has a chori on top of the hat, but sometimes its length can be up to 18 meters. He sometimes does cartwheels during the performance.

The percussionists are delighted while the audience are pleased. In March, the Home Affairs Bureau and HKCO bring to the public the precious video clips of the Drum Festival over the years, wishing to cheer the public up with dynamic drum sound to fight against the pandemic! One of the drums' diameter was 3. The drums demonstrated the drum artisans' wisdom and expertise and we could learn the charm of the drum heritage therein.

The steps of making the world's largest Chinese Dagu is very complicated. This episode is showing us the video clips of drumhead-installation, drumhead-stepping, stringing, drumhead-stretching and drumhead-stapling. One side of drumhead has been well stretched, but then how can we turn the more than kg drum over and stretch the drumhead on the other side?

Besides showing the process of turning over the drum by the drum artisans, the video is also showing the structure of the Chinese Dagu, the craft and the expertise therein. The more than kg Dagu has come to the final manufacturing procedure. He is also going to share with us the drum manufacturing procedures in this precious video. It was really splendid when all the drums arrived at Victoria Park for installation.

Led by HKCO Artistic Director, Yan Huichang, and Executive Director, Celina Chin, our colleagues from the percussion section and administration section worked in joint effort to place the drums in the park overnight to prepare for the opening ceremony on the next day. It was a huge boost to the morale of the city after suffering from SARS pandemic. Behind the Scene. All rights reserved. Arranged by Kuan Nai-chung. Compiled by Lin Shicheng. Summer Kaleidoscope.

Composed by Tan Dun. The Chinese instrumental orchestral parts are arranged by Chen Yuanlin based on the original western orchestral version. The erhu solo and percussion parts remain the same from the original score. The annual gala event for drummers is here again, at the Hong Kong Drum Festival! Beautiful Clouds Chasing the Moon. Composed by Ren Guang. Arranged by Law Wai-lun. Composed by Wu Hua. Arranged by Wu Hua. Composed collectively by the China Central Orchestra.

The symphonic poem is in four sections: 1. Introduction The story opens with the wind instruments playing traditional set tunes of Dian-Jiang-Chun and Shui-Long-Yin , the percussive points of Si-Ji-Tou , and the vocal style and pattern of Xipi-Daoban originally sung by an actor in the Qingyi virtuous female role. The Liao Army's Invasion The invasion — The percussion is given a high profile in this section to depict the atrocities of invaders as they rob, kill and burn.

The people are suffering, but soon they turn their devastation into joint forces. Assuming Commandership and Going to War A soliloquy — A recitative is developed from the Mu Guiying theme, which is formed by the Xipi-Sanban and Liushuiban vocal passages of the Qingyi virtuous woman. The high-flung emotions of the heroine being left with no choice but to accept the gargantuan task of leading the army to war are vividly expressed.

A muster roll is called, and generals are assigned to their squadrons. The common folks also pledge for solidarity in the war against the enemy, and they show their love and support of the heroine. Going into the battle — Led by Mu Guiying, the army sets forth on its expedition to the front in a rousing sendoff of bugles and drums. Composed by Liu Xing. It is in three sections: Allegretto moderato. Adagio sostenuto.

Allegro meccanico. The Silk Road. Composed by Jiang Ying. Composed by Liu Yuan. Composed by Wang Ning. Arranged by Gu Guanren. Seeking Dreams on West Lake. Composed by Qian Zhaoxi. Composed by Qin Wenchen.

Composed by Kuan Nai-chung. The first movement: Maestoso - Allegro The second movement: Adagio The third movement: Scherzo The fourth movement: Allegro con brio The diversity of Chinese musical instruments lends rich tone colours to the music, and the varied performing techniques that are unique to each generic type of instrument lend rich expressiveness to the Chinese orchestra.

Arranged by Peng Xiuwen. Symphonic Poem - Flowing Water. Composed by Peng Xiuwen. Drums in Celebration of a Bumper Harvest. Composed by Peng Xiuwen and Cai Huiquan. Composed by Zhao Jiping. Pipa Concerto No. Say not the Earth ends where the Horizon does, for the sky stretches beyond, As you reach Anxi in the far west, there is still further west to go. Scenes of Yunnan. The second movement: Evening in the Woods A variation on the traditional tune, The Murmuring Brook , the music lovingly creates the mood for love.

The third movement: The Lantern Festival It is derived from the Herdsmen's Folk Song , the melody features only four notes and a range of only a fifth. Composed by Chan Ming-chi. Becoming a Butterfly in a Dream. Composed by Chen Ning-chi. Ancient Capital. Composed by Yan Huichang. However, not all the diffraction spots can be explained by the current model. The appearance of 2D hexagonal silicon phases on Au has been already reported.

This, in combination with the appearance of diffraction spots due to multiscattering processes, could pose an obstacle to the precise determination of the 2D-Si structure recurring only to the microdiffraction data. Polarized micro-Raman spectroscopy is an ideal tool for a precise detection and analysis of a hexagonal 2D-Si phase on Au It was shown that a bulk gold—silicide crystalline phase does not give rise to detectable Raman peaks, likely due to the lack of Raman-active vibrational modes, 29 and is thus incapable of hindering the signal of a silicene phase.

Recently, it has been shown that after depositing Au on Si and annealing the sample, Raman peaks could be detected, which are associated with the formation of 2D silicides. Therefore, even if we assume that all the atoms within the unit cell lay in the same plane zero buckling condition , the highest achievable symmetry, for all of these phases, is represented by point group C 2. The Raman tensors associated with C 2 structures are of two types: Raman selection rules dictate that in a backscattering geometry B-type phonon modes are always invisible, while A-type modes are visible both in parallel and in crossed polarization configuration.

Differently, if we consider a crystalline structure with a higher symmetry, we can observe polarized Raman modes that are visible in parallel polarization configuration but completely suppressed in crossed polarization. This is true for a hexagonal lattice, even in the case of buckling, and it also holds upon uniaxial deformations, as it happens for black phosphorus, whose structure belongs to point group D 2 h.

Based on this argumentation, the study of the polarization dependency of the Raman spectrum is extremely important because the identification of a fully polarized Raman mode invisible in crossed polarization could not be explainable considering only the presence of the aforementioned silicides phases, but it would be, instead, a clear indication of the presence of a higher symmetry phase.

To perform detailed ex situ polarized micro-Raman analysis of the grown 2D silicon layer, it is necessary to protect it from oxidation, which otherwise occurs very rapidly under ambient conditions. The FLG flake forms an exceptional barrier against oxidative species and, thanks to its inert surface, preserves silicene structure unaltered. We have recently extended this procedure to use also few-layer hBN flakes, resulting in a highly transparent and insulating encapsulation layer.

It is important to mention that the samples used for the Raman measurements are not the same as the one used for LEEM analysis. However, the growth has been performed under the same conditions. To further confirm that the samples are identical, the ones used for Raman analysis are also investigated by using LEED. The blurriness of the pattern is caused by a slight mosaicity of the Au substrates that affects the large-area measurements performed by using a classic LEED apparatus.

The observed spectrum is identical with the one taken from a sample encapsulated under few-layer graphene flakes Figure S2 , suggesting that the observed Raman peaks are not associated with interlayer vibrational modes, which can be observed in some van der Waals stacks.

In addition to the well-known vibrational mode for boron nitride at cm —1 , three other modes can be distinguished at 83, , and cm —1. The dashed gray line indicates the position of the well-known cm —1 Raman mode of bulk, sp 3 -hybridized Si.

Low-frequency modes can be fitted by a single Lorentzian function purple and orange dashed lines , while the high-frequency peak is fitted with a combination of two Lorentzian functions green and yellow dashed lines. The two panels b, c are separated because the spectra are acquired with different spectrometers. The spectrum shows four main peaks at 83, , , and cm —1 , with the last one assigned to the well-known E 2g mode of multilayer hBN. It must be noted that at some points on the sample two additional peaks can be recorded between and cm —1 , positioned at and cm —1 , both characterized by a low intensity Figure S4 , upper spectrum, red arrows.

These peaks, however, are not always detectable and are showing up only at certain locations. A spectrum with a better signal-to-noise ratio, obtained by averaging 30 acquisitions, clearly shows that these peaks are not observable, while the and cm —1 peaks still show up at the usual positions, with unchanged width and intensity Figure S4 , lower spectrum. This clearly proves that the two additional peaks are decoupled from the and cm —1 ones and belong to a different structure, possibly a signature of the observed silicide phases.

The broader shoulders visible in Figure S4 at and cm —1 are a possible signature of amorphous structures, as hinted by the much larger FWHM compared to the peaks at and cm —1. To fully characterize the most intense, and always visible vibrational modes, we performed a polarized Raman analysis of the sample. In both panels, the upper part shows the signal acquired in parallel polarization configuration, where the polarization direction of the scattered light is parallel to the one of the incident light.

The lower half, instead, shows the signal in crossed polarization configuration, where the polarization vectors are normal to each other. The lower frequency region can be analyzed only by using the Alpha Witec setup, albeit with a much worse signal-to-noise ratio and lower spectral resolution. The higher frequency region, instead, is acquired with the Alpha Witec setup, which allows us to obtain a higher spectral resolution and a markedly better signal-to-noise ratio for this spectral region.

For this reason, the analysis of the higher frequency peak will be performed by using these data. First, we can note that the cm —1 peak is asymmetric. From the crossed polarization data, it is clear that it is composed of two different, slightly separated modes. A least-squares fitting process allows us to model the modes with Lorentzian functions. An additional broad peak centered around cm —1 is related either to phonon confinement effects or to a vibrational mode that was observed also for silicene on Ag and, in that case, assigned to a second-order phonon mode.

The low-frequency modes can be fitted with a single Lorentzian function, centered at No difference can be observed when fitting the peaks of the spectrum related to silicene capped under few-layer graphene flakes, both regarding their positions and the FWHM values. The intensities of the peaks in the graphene-capped sample are lower as the few-layer graphene flake is less transparent than the hBN one. Clearly, the Raman peaks at Particularly the lower frequency mode is completely suppressed in crossed polarization configuration, with a reduced intensity within the noise level.

For the reasons explained earlier, this fully polarized Raman peak is a clear indication of the existence of a high symmetry phase in the sample, as it cannot be generated by the silicide phases. It must be noted that a softening i. Notably, it was recently observed that a 2D hexagonal Si phase on Au is characterized by much larger lattice constant 4.

Thus, to confirm this hypothesis of a strained 2D silicene phase, we performed ab initio calculations of the vibrational modes of a silicene structure with a lattice constant of 4. At first, we fully characterized a freestanding layer of silicene, obtaining a lattice parameter of 3. Next, we reoptimized the atomic positions, constraining the lattice parameter of silicene to the value of 4.

In these highly strained conditions, the buckling is strongly reduced to 0. The relative phonon dispersion plots are shown in Figure S5. The doubly degenerate in-plane mode splits into two separated peaks green and yellow dashed lines. The rhomboidal unit cell black solid line edge length is 4. Red atoms are buckled along the out-of-plane direction by 0. The unit cell dimensions 4. The positions of the simulated modes are in good agreement with the experimental data, with a calculated out-of-plane mode centered at The experimentally observed mode centered at 83 cm —1 , instead, does not find any match within the proposed model and could be related to edge- or defect-activated vibrational modes.

Additionally, to verify whether such a structure can be accommodated on gold, we placed the strained silicene layer on top of an ideally terminated Au surface—something that we could not perform when calculating the Raman response, due to computational limitations—and relaxed the atomic positions until all forces were lower than 0. A stable configuration is indeed readily obtained, supporting the picture that such a biaxially strained silicene structure can be stabilized by the Au substrate.

It must be noted that the experimental data show a splitting of the in-plane modes, with the cm —1 peak characterized by a much stronger polarization dependence. The theoretical calculations, however, predict that the two in-plane modes are degenerate, with no change in intensity between parallel and crossed polarization configurations, as expected given the symmetry of the lattice.

This loss of degeneracy could be caused by a small deviation from the perfect hexagonal lattice due to an additional uniaxial distortion of the structure, similarly to what can be observed in uniaxially strained graphene. Under the additional strain the vibrational modes significantly change, improving the agreement with the experimental data.

The out-of-plane mode exhibits a small blue-shift, up to The in-plane vibrational modes get red-shifted and split up in two distinct peaks, as the degeneration is lifted, at We attribute this discrepancy to the presence of the substrate, not accounted for in the theoretical calculations. The modified structure can be optimally described by choosing a rectangular unit cell, with dimensions of 4. The effects of biaxial tensile strain on the silicene electronic structure have already been explored in the literature by using first-principles calculations.

The results of the calculations show that despite the huge mechanical deformation, the Dirac cone is preserved. We have presented a study of the vibrational properties of a silicene layer epitaxially grown on Au The diffraction pattern can be explained by a combination of two surface silicide phases and a strained silicene-derived phase. A passivation step, obtained by encapsulating the grown layer under few-layer hBN or graphene flakes, allowed us to perform polarized Raman spectroscopy.

The observed vibrational spectrum is characterized by polarization-dependent peaks that, for symmetry reasons, cannot be related to the silicide structures. Hence, the detected modes are a clear indication for the presence of a higher symmetry phase. The present work gives clear experimental evidence on the existence of a stable, highly strained silicene phase on Au , indicating a favorable platform for the investigation of the effects of strain on this promising 2D material.

The Journal of Physical Chemistry.

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